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Open AccessArticle

Predicting Intestinal and Hepatic First-Pass Metabolism of Orally Administered Testosterone Undecanoate

1
College of Pharmacy, University of Anbar, Ramadi 31001, Iraq
2
School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
3
Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7283; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207283
Received: 2 October 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 18 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards a Systems Biology Approach)
The bioavailability of orally administered drugs could be impacted by intestinal and hepatic first-pass metabolism. Testosterone undecanoate (TU), an orally administered ester prodrug of testosterone, is significantly subjected to first-pass metabolism. However, the individual contribution of intestinal and hepatic first-pass metabolism is not well determined. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to predict the metabolic contribution of each site. The hydrolysis–time profiles of TU incubation in human liver microsomes and Caco-2 cell homogenate were used to predict hepatic and intestinal first-pass metabolism, respectively. The in vitro half-life (t1/2 inv) for the hydrolysis of TU in microsomal mixtures was 28.31 ± 3.51 min. By applying the “well-stirred” model, the fraction of TU that could escape hepatic first-pass metabolism (FH) was predicted as 0.915 ± 0.009. The incubation of TU in Caco-2 cell homogenate yielded t1/2 inv of 109.28 ± 21.42 min, which was applied in a “Q gut” model to estimate the fraction of TU that would escape intestinal first-pass metabolism (FG) as 0.114 ± 0.02. Accordingly, only 11% of the absorbed fraction of TU could escape intestinal metabolism, while 91% can pass through hepatic metabolism. Hence, compared to the liver, the intestinal wall is the main site where TU is significantly metabolised during first-pass effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: testosterone undecanoate; first-pass metabolism; bioavailability; human liver microsomes; Caco-2 cells testosterone undecanoate; first-pass metabolism; bioavailability; human liver microsomes; Caco-2 cells
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Zgair, A.; Dawood, Y.; Ibrahem, S.M.; Back, H.-M.; Kagan, L.; Gershkovich, P.; Lee, J.B. Predicting Intestinal and Hepatic First-Pass Metabolism of Orally Administered Testosterone Undecanoate. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7283.

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