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Article

Assessment of Bacterial Contamination of Air at the Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanow (Warsaw, Poland): Selection of an Optimal Growth Medium for Analyzing Airborne Bacteria Diversity

1
Department of Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
2
Research and Development for Life Sciences Ltd., Miecznikowa 1/5a, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Geomicrobiology, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
4
Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanow, Laboratory of Environmental Analysis, Stanislawa Kostki Potockiego 10/16, 02-958 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7128; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207128
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 7 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Communities in Cultural Heritage and Their Control)
There is no standardized protocol for the assessment of microbial air contamination in museums and other cultural heritage sites. Therefore, most museums conduct such assessments based on their own guidelines or good practices. Usually, microbial air contamination is assessed using only classical microbiology methods with the application of a single growth medium. Therefore, this medium should be carefully selected to limit any selective cultivation bias. Metabarcoding, i.e., a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based method, combined with classical microbiological culturing was used to assess the effectiveness of various media applications in microbiological screening at the Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanow (Warsaw, Poland). The obtained results indicated that when using a classical microbiology approach to assess the microbial air contamination at the museum, the selection of a proper growth medium was critical. It was shown that the use of rich media (commonly applied by museum conservators) introduced significant bias by severely underreporting putative human pathogens and the bacterial species involved in biodeterioration. Therefore, we recommend the use of other media, such as Frazier or Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) medium, as they could yield more diverse communities and recovered the highest number of genera containing human pathogens, which may be suitable for public health assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: air quality; cultural heritage; museum; next-generation sequencing; PCR amplicon air quality; cultural heritage; museum; next-generation sequencing; PCR amplicon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dziurzynski, M.; Ciuchcinski, K.; Dyda, M.; Szych, A.; Drabik, P.; Laudy, A.; Dziewit, L. Assessment of Bacterial Contamination of Air at the Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanow (Warsaw, Poland): Selection of an Optimal Growth Medium for Analyzing Airborne Bacteria Diversity. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7128. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207128

AMA Style

Dziurzynski M, Ciuchcinski K, Dyda M, Szych A, Drabik P, Laudy A, Dziewit L. Assessment of Bacterial Contamination of Air at the Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanow (Warsaw, Poland): Selection of an Optimal Growth Medium for Analyzing Airborne Bacteria Diversity. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(20):7128. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207128

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dziurzynski, Mikolaj, Karol Ciuchcinski, Magdalena Dyda, Anna Szych, Paulina Drabik, Agnieszka Laudy, and Lukasz Dziewit. 2020. "Assessment of Bacterial Contamination of Air at the Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanow (Warsaw, Poland): Selection of an Optimal Growth Medium for Analyzing Airborne Bacteria Diversity" Applied Sciences 10, no. 20: 7128. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207128

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