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Article

Stearic Acid, Beeswax and Carnauba Wax as Green Raw Materials for the Loading of Carvacrol into Nanostructured Lipid Carriers

1
Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Brazil
2
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sergipe, Itabaiana 49100-000, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (LNMED), Tiradentes University, Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Aracaju 49010-390, Brazil
4
Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP), Av. Murilo Dantas, Aracaju 49032-490, Brazil
5
Tiradentes Institute, Boston, MA 02125, USA
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Department of Morphology, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Brazil
7
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
8
CEB—Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6267; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186267
Received: 13 August 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
The use of lipid nanoparticles as drug delivery systems has been growing over recent decades. Their biodegradable and biocompatible profile, capacity to prevent chemical degradation of loaded drugs/actives and controlled release for several administration routes are some of their advantages. Lipid nanoparticles are of particular interest for the loading of lipophilic compounds, as happens with essential oils. Several interesting properties, e.g., anti-microbial, antitumoral and antioxidant activities, are attributed to carvacrol, a monoterpenoid phenol present in the composition of essential oils of several species, including Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris, Nigellasativa and Origanum majorana. As these essential oils have been proposed as the liquid lipid in the composition of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), we aimed at evaluating the influence of carvacrol on the crystallinity profile of solid lipids commonly in use in the production of NLCs. Different ratios of solid lipid (stearic acid, beeswax or carnauba wax) and carvacrol were prepared, which were then subjected to thermal treatment to mimic the production of NLCs. The obtained binary mixtures were then characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). The increased concentration of monoterpenoid in the mixtures resulted in an increase in the mass loss recorded by TG, together with a shift of the melting point recorded by DSC to lower temperatures, and the decrease in the enthalpy in comparison to the bulk solid lipids. The miscibility of carvacrol with the melted solid lipids was also confirmed by DSC in the tested concentration range. The increase in carvacrol content in the mixtures resulted in a decrease in the crystallinity of the solid bulks, as shown by SAXS and PLM. The decrease in the crystallinity of lipid matrices is postulated as an advantage to increase the loading capacity of these carriers. Carvacrol may thus be further exploited as liquid lipid in the composition of green NLCs for a range of pharmaceutical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: carvacrol; stearic acid; beeswax; carnauba wax; nanostructured lipid carriers; crystallinity carvacrol; stearic acid; beeswax; carnauba wax; nanostructured lipid carriers; crystallinity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Galvão, J.G.; Santos, R.L.; Lira, A.A.M.; Kaminski, R.; Sarmento, V.H.; Severino, P.; Dolabella, S.S.; Scher, R.; Souto, E.B.; Nunes, R.S. Stearic Acid, Beeswax and Carnauba Wax as Green Raw Materials for the Loading of Carvacrol into Nanostructured Lipid Carriers. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 6267. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186267

AMA Style

Galvão JG, Santos RL, Lira AAM, Kaminski R, Sarmento VH, Severino P, Dolabella SS, Scher R, Souto EB, Nunes RS. Stearic Acid, Beeswax and Carnauba Wax as Green Raw Materials for the Loading of Carvacrol into Nanostructured Lipid Carriers. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(18):6267. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186267

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galvão, Juliana G.; Santos, Raquel L.; Lira, Ana A.M.; Kaminski, Renata; Sarmento, Victor H.; Severino, Patricia; Dolabella, Silvio S.; Scher, Ricardo; Souto, Eliana B.; Nunes, Rogéria S. 2020. "Stearic Acid, Beeswax and Carnauba Wax as Green Raw Materials for the Loading of Carvacrol into Nanostructured Lipid Carriers" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 18: 6267. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186267

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