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Article

A Comparative Bio-Evaluation and Chemical Profiles of Calendula officinalis L. Extracts Prepared via Different Extraction Techniques

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Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, 42130 Konya, Turkey
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Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, 230 Réduit, Mauritius
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Science and Technology Research and Application Center, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey
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Laboratoire de Génétique, Biochimie et Biotechnologies Végétales GBBV, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Frères Mentouri Constantine1, Route d’Aïn El Bey, 25017 Constantine, Algeria
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Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey
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Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Perugia, via San Costanzo 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5920; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175920
Received: 19 July 2020 / Revised: 18 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 26 August 2020
Calendula officinalis L., (marigold), well known for its medicinal properties, has been extensively studied for its therapeutic properties. Nonetheless, as far as the literature could establish, no study has attempted to comparatively assess the biological (antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential) of the flowers, leaves, and roots of C. officinalis extracted using conventional (maceration and Soxhlet extraction (SE)) and non-conventional extraction (homogenizer (HAE) and ultrasound (UAE) assisted extraction) techniques. The detailed phytochemical profile of each extract along with the concentration of specific bioactive compounds has also been established. Total phenolic content was highest for the flower extracts while flavonoid content was highest in the leaf extracts. Phytochemical profiling showed that the extraction method influenced the phytochemical composition of the extract. Nicotiflorin was identified in the flower extracts only while amentoflavone occurred only in the roots, inferring that the occurrence of bioactive compounds varies within a plant. The flower extracts showed highest antioxidant potential while the roots extracts were potent inhibitors of cholinesterase and tyrosinase. This study provides valuable data on the influence of extraction techniques on the recovery of bioactive compounds from plants. In an endeavor to scale-up extraction from plant considering the more efficient extraction method is of paramount importance. Moreover, the study highlighted the necessity to thoroughly examine the biological activities of various parts of a plant obtained via different extraction protocols. View Full-Text
Keywords: marigold; maceration; cholinesterase; tyrosinase marigold; maceration; cholinesterase; tyrosinase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ak, G.; Zengin, G.; Sinan, K.I.; Mahomoodally, M.F.; Picot-Allain, M.C.N.; Cakır, O.; Bensari, S.; Yılmaz, M.A.; Gallo, M.; Montesano, D. A Comparative Bio-Evaluation and Chemical Profiles of Calendula officinalis L. Extracts Prepared via Different Extraction Techniques. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175920

AMA Style

Ak G, Zengin G, Sinan KI, Mahomoodally MF, Picot-Allain MCN, Cakır O, Bensari S, Yılmaz MA, Gallo M, Montesano D. A Comparative Bio-Evaluation and Chemical Profiles of Calendula officinalis L. Extracts Prepared via Different Extraction Techniques. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(17):5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ak, Gunes, Gokhan Zengin, Kouadio I. Sinan, Mohamad F. Mahomoodally, Marie C.N. Picot-Allain, Oguz Cakır, Souheir Bensari, Mustafa A. Yılmaz, Monica Gallo, and Domenico Montesano. 2020. "A Comparative Bio-Evaluation and Chemical Profiles of Calendula officinalis L. Extracts Prepared via Different Extraction Techniques" Applied Sciences 10, no. 17: 5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175920

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