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Open AccessArticle

Glass-Ceramic Foams from Alkali-Activated Vitrified Bottom Ash and Waste Glasses

FunGlass, Alexander Dubcek University of Trencin, 91101 Trencin, Slovakia
Dipartmento di Ingegneria Industriale Università degli Studi di Padova, 35112 Padova, Italy
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 81438 Bratislava, Slovakia
Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Application, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 81438 Bratislava, Slovakia
Joint Glass Centre of the IIC SAS, TnUAD, and FChFT STU, 91101 Trencin, Slovakia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5714;
Received: 21 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 11 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction Materials)
Both vitrified bottom ashes (VBAs) and waste glasses are forms of inorganic waste material that are widely landfilled, despite having some economic potential. Building on previous studies, we prepared glass-ceramic foams by the combination of VBA with either soda-lime glass (SLG) or borosilicate glass (BSG). Suspensions of fine powders in weakly alkaline solution underwent gelation, followed by frothing at nearly room temperature. Hardened “green” foams were sintered, with concurrent crystallization, at 850–1000 °C. All foams were highly porous (>70%), with mostly open porosity. The glass addition was fundamental in both gelation (promoting the formation of carbonate and silicate hydrated phases) and firing steps. While SLG addition enhanced the viscous flow sintering, without a significant impact on the crystallization of gehlenite, the main crystalline phase from the devitrification of VBA, BSG addition caused a reactive sintering, with remarkable changes in the phase assemblage. The glass addition generally also allowed lower sintering temperatures and yielded products with excellent crushing strength. However, only specific conditions resulted in the complete immobilization of pollutants (e.g., Cr3+ ions). View Full-Text
Keywords: alkali activation; sintering; glass foams; chemical durability alkali activation; sintering; glass foams; chemical durability
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Hujova, M.; Rabelo Monich, P.; Sedlacek, J.; Hnatko, M.; Kraxner, J.; Galusek, D.; Bernardo, E. Glass-Ceramic Foams from Alkali-Activated Vitrified Bottom Ash and Waste Glasses. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5714.

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