2. Context and Research Objectives
2.1. Introduction to Industry 4.0
2.2. Ambitions of CyberFactory#1 Project
- the societal dimension, arising from the previous three, includes the factory modeling as a System of Systems, the distributed manufacturing’s design and, finally, the cyber-resilience mechanisms’ definition.
- the simulation challenge (main object of this article);
- the optimization challenge (one main area of application); and
- the resilience challenge (second area of application.
2.3. FoF Modeling and Simulation Challenge
2.4. Aerospace Manufacturing Use-Case
3. State of the Art in Digital Twins and Cyber-Ranges
3.1. Digital Twin Concept and Definition
- CPS Prototype is a model that defines the structure and the associate semantic for a certain class of CPS.
- CPS Instance is a computer-based representation of an instantiation of a CPS prototype. As the DT is an instance of a CPS prototype, it can be said that a CPS instance is a computer-based representation of its DT.
- Behavioral Models are simulation models related with the semantic representation of a CPS prototype and instance. Each DT can address different behavioral models to allow multi-disciplinary simulations.
- Functional Models allow the analysis of data from the shop floor. The result of the data analysis is used to enrich the DT, for example to enable predictive maintenance.
3.2. State of the Art in Digital Twins
- General electric (GE) developed an advanced and functional Digital Twin that integrates analytic models for components of the power plant that measure asset health, wear and performance. This DT can be integrated into the GE developed distributed predix platform for “large-scale machine data processing, management and analytics” and IIoT applications .
- PTC Windchill is a DT developed by PTC to help manufacturers across industries understanding how their customers are using their products. This way, they can help them to improve the design and performance of those products .
- 3DS is a DT developed by Dassault Systemes that allows manufacturers to make virtual products available to the market for experimentation and testing in realistic conditions before engaging in any real production .
- Microsoft Azure DT Software is an IoT service that virtually replicates the physical world by modeling the relationships among people, places and devices in a spatial intelligence graph .
- Seebo DT is a graphical interface that allows the generation of actionable insights that maximize overall equipment effectiveness, reduce unplanned downtime and uncover the root cause of issues. Dashboards allow real-time visualization of the operational health of deployed machines and display enriched alerts with predictive metrics based on key machine parameters, such as machine temperature, pressure, vibration, humidity, fatigue and wear in order to quickly identify and solve issues remotely .
- Anylogic software provides simulation capabilities in a single commercial package with special research licenses available. It is specialized in factories and production lines, with discrete-event simulation capabilities, and has libraries capable of supporting several types of fields . The tool was used for a prototypical implementation of the data-driven DT generation approach in .
- Ansys developed a DT that can be used to monitor real-time prescriptive analytics and test predictive maintenance to optimize asset performance. The DT can also provide data to be used to improve the physical product design throughout the product lifecycle .
- IBM developed a DT framework that helps companies to virtually create, test, build and monitor a product, reducing the latency in the feedback loop between design and operation. It enables identifying and fixing problems and bringing products to market more quickly .
- Factory I/O is a software developed by Real Games  that allows setting up configurable 3D-simulations by plug in components of a given industrial equipment catalog. To this end, the software provides simulation aspects of digital twins, explicit synchronization between real system and virtual replica is limited to the integration of several Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for simulating the virtual factory.
- Wrld3d is an open source platform that allows the creation of DTs in a quick and easy manner, using a comprehensive set of self-serve tools, SDKs, APIs and location intelligent services. As a dynamic 3D mapping platform, it allows to create virtual indoor and outdoor environments upon which data from sensors, systems, mobile devices and location services can be visualized within millimeter accuracy .
- Mago3D is a platform for visualizing massive and complex 3D objects including building information modeling (BIM) on a web browser. Thus, it is possible to model DTs that creates parallel “worlds” in a virtual reality with several sensors .
- i-Maintenance toolkit enables to create a DT of an industrial asset in order to obtain information on the status of all components related to the production and maintenance of the industrial process, collect, monitor and analyze life-cycle data. It is composed of a messaging system, a set of adapters to integrate sensor/actuator systems and other software components that are used as a technical foundation for the DT development .
- At the intersection between pure proprietary and real open-source DT technology, open source solutions are developed by big companies, which make them limited in scope, due to the commercial interests of the developers :
- Eclipse Ditto is a DT developed by Bosch. It enables the design of DTs in the form of IoT development patterns. It can be seen as an open source foundational layer of Bosch IoT platform .
- imodel.js is a platform for creating, accessing, leveraging and integrating infrastructure DTs. As what happens with Eclipse Ditto, it is a commercial initiative connected to the US infrastructure company Bentley. According to the developers, it was designed to be both flexible and open, so that it can be easily used and integrated with other systems .
- In the research project “Twin-Control” a DT for machine tools and process was developed. The final result based on finite element analysis (FEA) software that integrates machine structure and processes. For FEA there exist commercial (EA autodesk  and Ansys ) as well as open source [102,103] software tools.
3.3. Cyber-Range Concept and Definition
- Deployment mode: CR platforms can be fixed, mobile or hosted in the cloud. Fixed CRs answer the need for permanent training in dedicated premises with high performance servers and the ability to scale-up or customize simulation capacity. Mobile CRs enable supporting temporary use in events such as hackathons. They are less scalable but more flexible for non-permanent uses. Cloud-hosted CRs enable supporting geographically distributed exercises with minimal computing configuration.
- Traffic generator: To reproduce realistic conditions of a cyber-defense scenario, most cyber-ranges are offered with one or several traffic generators or which inject real network traffic or emulate human activity on the system. Legitimate traffic is generated in requested quantity and diversity to produce the noise characteristic of real conditions. Attack traffic is generated to test detection performance and reaction ability of the blue team. Most CRs enable recording and replaying recorded traffic in virtual infrastructures.
- Virtual Machines (VMs): Most cyber-ranges replicate physical IT infrastructure in virtual environments by the use of VMs such as VMware and Docker. The performance of CRs and their scalability greatly depend on that of VM technologies underneath, as do their limitations. Network frames are commonly managed by a distributed virtual switch. This component creates virtual networks associated with a VLAN number and from which the virtual machines are connected.
- Catalogues: CRs may offer a variety of catalogues containing elementary templates of Operating Systems (OS), servers, other network equipment and security appliances such as firewalls and Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDS) or known cyber-threats, as well as complex training and testing scenarios to choose from in the preparation of exercises. In some CRs, catalogues can be enriched by the users in a collaborative mode.
- Design interface: Most CRs provide an interface enabling users to model virtual IT infrastructure and create own scenarios based on catalogue content and, in some cases, own real or virtual equipment. They typically rely on web and micro-services, simplifying the deployment of virtualized infrastructures. Topologies are created in separate work zones and can be stored in libraries for future reuse. Topologies from different work zones may however be brought together to form more complex topologies. Execution conditions of the attacks (source, destination, frequency and any specific parameters) can be set by the user in this interface. Users with administrator privilege can add or modify attacks. They can also export/import attacks to make them available to other users.
- Learning Management System (LMS): Although this is not the main use-case considered in this paper, it is important to note that several CRs on the market come together with training programs, a more or less personalized training path and a supporting LMS.
- Interface switch: Hardware CRs typically enable to plug real hardware equipment which can then be included in the work zone together with the virtual assets, forming what is called hybrid infrastructures. It may provide greater scalability and support testing on equipment beyond those available in catalogues.
3.4. State of the Art in Cyber-Ranges
- Airbus Cyber-Range is a proprietary development from Airbus Cybersecurity. It exists in three versions, as a fixed turnkey platform, as a mobile platform and as a service in the cloud. It has a drag and drop design interface for network modeling, a large catalogue of attacks and equipment templates and a growing OT modeling and simulation capacity. It is customizable without professional services .
- Hynesim CR is proprietary development from Diateam. It exists in fixed, mobile and cloud versions, has a drag and drop design interface and includes a Learning Management System (LMS) enabling to customize user training path .
- Malice CR is a proprietary development from Sysdream. It exists in fixed, mobile and cloud versions, provides an industrial virtualization layer, a LMS and a modern web management interface .
- CyberBit CR is a proprietary development from CyberBit Ltd. It exists as a fixed or mobile platform, includes a large attack catalogue and powerful scenario engine, is customizable without the need of professional services and includes an industrial virtualization layer .
- Palo Alto’s CR is a proprietary development from the eponym company. It exists in fixed, mobile and cloud versions and has a scenario engine and a drag and drop interface. It supports a structured training and certification program .
- Ravello CR is a proprietary development from SimSpace. It exists in fixed, mobile and cloud versions and provides an industrial virtualization layer, a modern web management interface, a drag and drop design interface, a hardware network traffic generator, a scenario engine and a LMS. It is customizable without professional services .
- Cisco CR is a proprietary development from Cisco. It is available as fixed platform or in the cloud. It provides an industrial virtualization layer, a large attack catalogue and a scenario engine .
- Cdex CR is a proprietary development from Vector Synergy. It provides an industrial virtualization layer, an attack catalogue and a scenario engine .
4. Designing a Digital Twin for the Factory of the Future
4.1. Embedding Human Behavior Modeling Capacity
4.2. Enabling Co-Simulation for Holistic FoF Modeling
- hierarchically such as manufacturing assets building a production environment;
- by association such as producers and consumers in production lines; and
- peer-to-peer, as a network of systems with similar behavior or inputs and outputs.
- DT process design and information requirements: It is important to link the process flow to the applications, data needs and the types of sensor information required to create the DT. The process design should also be concerned with attributes and features that allows the improvement of cost, time or asset efficiency. These typically form the base line assumptions from which the DT enhancements should begin.
- DT conceptual architecture: The architecture should represent a model of a manufacturing process in the physical world and its companion twin in the digital world. The DT serves as a virtual replica of what is actually happening on the factory floor in near-real time. Thousands of sensors distributed throughout the physical manufacturing process collectively capture data along a wide array of dimensions: from behavior characteristics of the productive machinery and works in progress (thickness, color qualities, hardness, torque, speeds, etc.) to environmental conditions within the factory itself. These data should be continuously communicated to and aggregated by the DT application.
- Hybrid DE wraps every CT unit as a DE simulation unit and uses a DE-based orchestration.
- Hybrid CT wraps every DE unit to become a CT unit and uses a CT-based orchestration.
4.3. Enhancing FoF Optimization
4.4. Fostering FoF Resilience
5. Aerospace Manufacturing Implementation Case
5.1. Operator Behavior Modeling on Aerospace Shop Floor
5.2. Co-Simulation of 3 Different Assets on 3 Different Sites
5.3. Distributed Aerospace FoF Optimization
5.4. Distributed Aerospace FoF Resilience
- For the IIoT cyber-physical DT, we rely on Ditto technology, which is an open source tool already described in Section 3.2.
- Flows from sensors are managed through Node-Red , a Node.js based relay application for wiring together hardware devices through the passing of messages.
- Mechatronics monitoring of human behavior uses the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) Mental Fatigue Scale .
- A hybrid multi-model approach is used for emotions recognition, based on Facial Action Coding System FACS  and facial emotion recognition, which we expect to compliment the biosignal-based emotion detection.
- Gazebo, a Linux based open source multi-purpose simulation tool specialized on the simulation of robotic systems, is used.
- Airbus Cyberange for cyber threats and merging of physical and cyber security data and simulation is used.
- ElasticSearch, a highly scalable NoSQL database with a powerful search, is used to store data from sensors, machines, the IT tools, network intrusion detectors, etc.
- We use Kibana to visualize the data as embedding its dashboards in the user interface.
Conflicts of Interest
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