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Biogenesis, Biologic Function and Clinical Potential of Exosomes in Different Diseases

National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Hokkaido, Japan
Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, P. O. BOX 715, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri 600230, Nigeria
Department of Biochemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 18800, Pakistan
Área Académica de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuaria, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Av. Universidad Km 1, Ex-Hda. de Aquetzalpa, Tulancingo 43600, Hgo, Mexico
Pegasus c/o US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development (ORD), Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA
Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Institute for Integrative Toxicology (IIT), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Environmental Toxicology Lab, Marine Environment Department, National Institute of Oceanography, and Fisheries (NIOF), Alexandria 21556, Egypt
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4428;
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) belonging to the nanovesicles family that function as signaling molecules between cells. After their first description in the late 1960s, interest in their potential as a research target has steadily increased. They are small secreted organelles with a single membrane that are well enriched in lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and glycoconjugates. Exosomes take part in a larger communication network in which cells communicate between one another by DNA shuttling, proteins, RNA, and membrane-bound factors. The machinery of protein quality control occurs through the process termed “exosome biogenesis”. Furthermore, the pathway involved in intercellular movement of vesicles is vital in various aspects of human health and diseases. Due to their inherent properties, exosomes are currently being developed as potential therapeutic agents in a wide range of diseases including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Exosomes and other EVs sourced from Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown in different studies to possess therapeutic effects in diverse disease models either in vivo or in vitro. Some mechanisms and/or pathways that MSC-derived exosomes use to illustrate their therapeutic effect against some diseases have also been summarized. This review aims to highlight the recent findings and potential therapeutic application of exosomes in different diseases such as autoimmune, cardiovascular, obesity, neural, soft tissues, bone, and cartilage. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; adipose-derived stem cell released exosomes; tumor-derived exosomes; metabolic diseases; mesenchymal stem cells exosomes; adipose-derived stem cell released exosomes; tumor-derived exosomes; metabolic diseases; mesenchymal stem cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Magdy Beshbishy, A.; Alghamdi, S.; Onyiche, T.E.; Zahoor, M.; Rivero-Perez, N.; Zaragoza-Bastida, A.; Ghorab, M.A.; Meshaal, A.K.; El-Esawi, M.A.; Hetta, H.F.; Batiha, G.E.-S. Biogenesis, Biologic Function and Clinical Potential of Exosomes in Different Diseases. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4428.

AMA Style

Magdy Beshbishy A, Alghamdi S, Onyiche TE, Zahoor M, Rivero-Perez N, Zaragoza-Bastida A, Ghorab MA, Meshaal AK, El-Esawi MA, Hetta HF, Batiha GE-S. Biogenesis, Biologic Function and Clinical Potential of Exosomes in Different Diseases. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(13):4428.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magdy Beshbishy, Amany, Saad Alghamdi, ThankGod E. Onyiche, Muhammad Zahoor, Nallely Rivero-Perez, Adrian Zaragoza-Bastida, Mohamed A. Ghorab, Ahmed K. Meshaal, Mohamed A. El-Esawi, Helal F. Hetta, and Gaber E.-S. Batiha. 2020. "Biogenesis, Biologic Function and Clinical Potential of Exosomes in Different Diseases" Applied Sciences 10, no. 13: 4428.

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