Survey of Smart Parking Systems
Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of San Juan, San Juan 5400, Argentina
Institute of Informatics and Applications, University of Girona, 17003 Girona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3872; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113872
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 21 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems: Beyond Intelligent Vehicles)
The large number of vehicles constantly seeking access to congested areas in cities means that finding a public parking place is often difficult and causes problems for drivers and citizens alike. In this context, strategies that guide vehicles from one point to another, looking for the most optimal path, are needed. Most contributions in the literature are routing strategies that take into account different criteria to select the optimal route required to find a parking space. This paper aims to identify the types of smart parking systems (SPS) that are available today, as well as investigate the kinds of vehicle detection techniques (VDT) they have and the algorithms or other methods they employ, in order to analyze where the development of these systems is at today. To do this, a survey of 274 publications from January 2012 to December 2019 was conducted. The survey considered four principal features: SPS types reported in the literature, the kinds of VDT used in these SPS, the algorithms or methods they implement, and the stage of development at which they are. Based on a search and extraction of results methodology, this work was able to effectively obtain the current state of the research area. In addition, the exhaustive study of the studies analyzed allowed for a discussion to be established concerning the main difficulties, as well as the gaps and open problems detected for the SPS. The results shown in this study may provide a base for future research on the subject.