In recent years, the self-driving car technologies have been developed with many successful stories in both academia and industry. The challenge for autonomous vehicles is the requirement of operating accurately and robustly in the urban environment. This paper focuses on how to efficiently solve the hierarchical control system of a self-driving car into practice. This technique is composed of decision making, local path planning and control. An ego vehicle is navigated by global path planning with the aid of a High Definition map. Firstly, we propose the decision making for motion planning by applying a two-stage Finite State Machine to manipulate mission planning and control states. Furthermore, we implement a real-time hybrid A* algorithm with an occupancy grid map to find an efficient route for obstacle avoidance. Secondly, the local path planning is conducted to generate a safe and comfortable trajectory in unstructured scenarios. Herein, we solve an optimization problem with nonlinear constraints to optimize the sum of jerks for a smooth drive. In addition, controllers are designed by using the pure pursuit algorithm and the scheduled feedforward PI controller for lateral and longitudinal direction, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed framework can operate efficiently in the urban scenario.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited