Currently, the pollution of soils by heavy metals is a problem of paramount relevance and requires the development of proper remediation techniques. In particular, lead is a frequently detected soil contaminant that poses adverse effects to the environment and human health. In this review, we provide an overview of the bioremediation treatments promoted by plants (phytoremediation), fungi, or bacteria that could be applied to areas polluted by lead. These restoration processes have the advantage of being environmentally friendly and cost-effective solutions that exploit plants to immobilize and extract contaminants from soil and water, and fungi and bacteria to degrade them. Phytoremediation is an extensively studied and mature practice, with many in-the-field applications where numerous plant species have been employed. In contrast, bioremediation processes promoted by fungi and bacteria are very promising but, up to now, studies have been mostly performed at a laboratory scale with only a few implementations in real-world situations; therefore, further research is needed.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited