FMECA Application in Tomotherapy: Comparison between Classic and Fuzzy Methodologies
2. Classical and Fuzzy Approach of FMECA in Healthcare
- Failure/error modes;
- Potential causes;
- Failure consequences.
- Occurrence index, O, which represents the probability that a particular accidental event will occur;
- Severity index, S, which is a measure of the severity of consequences resulting from the undetected failure mode;
- Detection index, D, related to the probability that an incipient failure will be detected before the failure occurs.
- Relative importance among (O, D, S) is not taken into consideration;
- Different combinations of (O, D, S) produce the same RPN value (i.e., same rank order), even if risk levels are very different;
- It is difficult for the expert to accurately assess (O, D, S) parameters.
- Fuzzification process: numerical values of risk parameters (O, D, S) and RPN index are converted into linguistic variables to which fuzzy sets are associated. A degree of truth of each fuzzy set is characterized by a membership function generally defined by triangular or trapezoidal distributions [19,20,21,22]. For example, let us take parameter O relating to the occurrence probability of a failure mode; its value (in the range of 1–10) can be interpreted using fuzzy labels such as “low”, “medium”, “high”, etc. Each linguistic variable can be characterized by triangular distribution that is defined by three parameters: lower limit; peak value; upper limit. Peak value corresponds to the most probable value of the set data, whereas the lower and upper limit are the lower and upper bounds of the data interval;
- Fuzzy inference process: linguistic variables, classified as fuzzy sets, are processed using rules based on Fuzzy Logic (i.e., Fuzzy Rules of Inference). These rules are, generally, expressed as if-then conditions.
- An example of the if-then rule is: IF occurrence, O, is “Moderate” AND detectability, D, is “Low” AND severity, S, is “High” THEN risk priority number, RPN, is Moderate.
- Each rule has a weight w that denotes its degree of importance evaluated using weight wO, wD and wS assigned for O, D, S. More details are reported in ;
- Defuzzification process: it maps RPN outputs from the fuzzy domain back into the crisp domain, in the range of 1–1000. In , RPN crisp value is evaluated using the analytical calculation of the “center of gravity” of the area produced by the combination of fuzzy RPN outputs.
3. FMECA Application in Tomotherapy
- Treatment planning (volume determination and treatment planning stages);
- Treatment execution (positioning and immobilization of the patient, execution of megavoltage (MV), computed tomography (CT) and irradiation).
- treatment planning: 74 failure/error modes are examined, 21 of them have exceeded the threshold value;
- treatment execution: 30 failure/error modes are examined, 9 of them have exceeded the threshold value.
3.1. Fuzzy Approach
4. Criteria of Comparison for Various FMECA Approaches
4.1. Resolving Capacity
4.2. Ranking Capacity
5. Comparison Results
5.1. Comparison of Resolving Capacity for RPN Calculation
5.2. Ranking Capacity for RPN Calculation
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|O||D||S||Classic RPN||Classic-RPN Ranking||F-RPN (wO = 0.3, wD = 0.3, wS = 0.3)||F-RPN Ranking||F-RPN* (wO = 0.4, wD = 0.2, wS = 0.4)||F-RPN* Ranking||w-RPN (wO = 0.4, wD = 0.2, wS = 0.4)||w-RPN Ranking|
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Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Buffa, P.; Palagonia, M.; Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C. FMECA Application in Tomotherapy: Comparison between Classic and Fuzzy Methodologies. Environments 2022, 9, 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9040050
Giardina M, Tomarchio E, Buffa P, Palagonia M, Veronese I, Cantone MC. FMECA Application in Tomotherapy: Comparison between Classic and Fuzzy Methodologies. Environments. 2022; 9(4):50. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9040050Chicago/Turabian Style
Giardina, Mariarosa, Elio Tomarchio, Pietro Buffa, Maurizio Palagonia, Ivan Veronese, and Marie Claire Cantone. 2022. "FMECA Application in Tomotherapy: Comparison between Classic and Fuzzy Methodologies" Environments 9, no. 4: 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9040050