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Article

Parks and Recreational Areas as Sinks of Plastic Debris in Urban Sites: The Case of Light-Density Microplastics in the City of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

1
Soil Physics and Land Management Degradation Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Environmental and Earth Science, University College Roosevelt, 4331 CB Middelburg, The Netherlands
3
Departamento de Agricultura, Sociedad y Ambiente, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Campeche 24500, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Teresa A. P. Rocha-Santos and Joana C. Prata
Environments 2022, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9010005
Received: 30 November 2021 / Revised: 27 December 2021 / Accepted: 28 December 2021 / Published: 30 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plastic Contamination: Challenges and Solutions)
Soils of parks and recreational areas are potential sinks of microplastics because they are under multifunctional use. The aims of this research were to quantify and determine the types and abundance of light-density microplastics in one of the most cosmopolitan cities of the world: Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Therefore, potential differences between the city districts were explored through the assessment of light-density microplastics’ concentrations in soils together with the soil properties. Microplastics were extracted from 74 soil samples. Predictions of microplastic concentrations and soil characteristics were made for the entire city by using ordinary kriging; 97% of the samples contained microplastic particles (MPPs), and on average, there were 4825.31 ± 6513.85 MPP/kg soil. A total of 21 hotspot samples were identified, and all of them contained LDPE, which represented 40.82% of the plastic types, in addition to 35.06% PAC and 15.58% natural polyamide. Other types of plastics were PP (0.19%), PS (1.30%), bioplastic (0.19%), PA (0.37%), PU (0.56), PVC (0.19%), and unidentified plastics (0.19%). There were no significant differences in MPP concentration between city districts. Our results showed that MPPs are abundant in urban soils, which represents a high risk for soil life. Further studies are required for identifying the sources of this pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: microplastics; urban areas; parks microplastics; urban areas; parks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cohen, Q.M.; Glaese, M.; Meng, K.; Geissen, V.; Huerta-Lwanga, E. Parks and Recreational Areas as Sinks of Plastic Debris in Urban Sites: The Case of Light-Density Microplastics in the City of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Environments 2022, 9, 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9010005

AMA Style

Cohen QM, Glaese M, Meng K, Geissen V, Huerta-Lwanga E. Parks and Recreational Areas as Sinks of Plastic Debris in Urban Sites: The Case of Light-Density Microplastics in the City of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Environments. 2022; 9(1):5. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cohen, Quirine M., Mae Glaese, Ke Meng, Violette Geissen, and Esperanza Huerta-Lwanga. 2022. "Parks and Recreational Areas as Sinks of Plastic Debris in Urban Sites: The Case of Light-Density Microplastics in the City of Amsterdam, The Netherlands" Environments 9, no. 1: 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9010005

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