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Long-Term Environmental Monitoring in an Arctic Lake Polluted by Metals under Climate Change

1
Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems of Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 184209 Apatity, Russia
2
Institute of Geology of Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 185910 Petrozavodsk, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2020, 7(5), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7050034
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 28 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
Lake Kuetsjarvi (in the lower reaches of the Pasvik River, Murmansk Region, Russia) in the border area between Russia and Norway, is one of the most polluted water reservoirs in the European Arctic. The operation of the Pechenganikel Smelter located on its shores has led to the extremely high concentrations of heavy metals observed in the waters and sediments of the lake. Long-term comprehensive studies of the ecosystem of Lake Kuetsjarvi have made it possible to identify the response of its components to the global and regional change in the environment and climate as a whole, resulting in increased water toxicity and eutrophication, reduction in the number of stenobiont species of aquatic organisms against the background of an increase in the number of eurybiontic and invasive species. Modern communities of Lake Kuetsjarvi are the result of a combination of long-term changes in the abiotic environment and biotic interactions. Heavy-metal pollution of Lake Kuetsjarvi, observed since the 1930s, has led to the formation of a community that is resistant to this type of impact and supports large populations of adapted species. Adaptations of communities to the dynamics of the environmental conditions that their members are exposed to include changes in the species composition, quantitative indicators, ratios between individual taxonomic groups, and the population structure. The development of sympatric forms that differ in the ecological niches they occupy, morphology, and life cycle strategies, including the transition to a short-cycle survival strategy, allows whitefish to remain the dominant species and maintain high population numbers. Unlike the organismal level, responses to medium-term environmental changes on the population and community level are less specific and characterized by stronger inertia. View Full-Text
Keywords: pollution; heavy metals; ecosystem; Lake Kuetsjarvi pollution; heavy metals; ecosystem; Lake Kuetsjarvi
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zubova, E.M.; Kashulin, N.A.; Dauvalter, V.A.; Denisov, D.B.; Valkova, S.A.; Vandysh, O.I.; Slukovskii, Z.I.; Terentyev, P.M.; Cherepanov, A.A. Long-Term Environmental Monitoring in an Arctic Lake Polluted by Metals under Climate Change. Environments 2020, 7, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7050034

AMA Style

Zubova EM, Kashulin NA, Dauvalter VA, Denisov DB, Valkova SA, Vandysh OI, Slukovskii ZI, Terentyev PM, Cherepanov AA. Long-Term Environmental Monitoring in an Arctic Lake Polluted by Metals under Climate Change. Environments. 2020; 7(5):34. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7050034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zubova, Elena M., Nikolay A. Kashulin, Vladimir A. Dauvalter, Dmitry B. Denisov, Svetlana A. Valkova, Oksana I. Vandysh, Zakhar I. Slukovskii, Peter M. Terentyev, and Alexander A. Cherepanov. 2020. "Long-Term Environmental Monitoring in an Arctic Lake Polluted by Metals under Climate Change" Environments 7, no. 5: 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7050034

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