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Assessing Energy-Based CO2 Emission and Workers’ Health Risks at the Shipbreaking Industries in Bangladesh

Department of Environment Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh
Department of Chemistry, South Banasree Model High School and College, Dhaka 1219, Bangladesh
Faculty of Earth Science, University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli 17600, Malaysia
College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA
Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental Science and Management, Independent University Bangladesh, Dhaka 1219, Bangladesh
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2020, 7(5), 35;
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 26 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
The study represents the estimation of energy-based CO2 emission and the health risks of workers involved in the shipbreaking industries in Sitakunda, Bangladesh. To calculate the carbon emission (CE) from three shipbreaking activities, i.e., metal gas cutting (GC), diesel fuel (FU) and electricity consumption (EC), we used the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s Emission and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) emission factors. Moreover, the geographic weighted regression (GWR) model was applied to assess the contribution of influencing factors of CE throughout the sampling points. To assess the workers’ health condition and their perceptions on environmental degradation, a semi-structured questionnaire survey among 118 respondents were performed. The results showed that total CO2 emissions from GC were 0.12 megatons (MT), 11.43 MT, and 41.39 MT for daily, monthly, and yearly respectively, and the values were significantly higher than the surrounding control area. Emissions from the FU were estimated as daily: 0.85 MT, monthly: 1.92 MT, and yearly: 17.91 MT, which were significantly higher than EC. The study also revealed that workers were very susceptible to accidental hazards especially death (91%), and pollution (79%). Environmental consequences and health risks of the workers in shipbreaking industry warrant more attention nationally and internationally at the industry-level. View Full-Text
Keywords: shipbreaking; CO2 emission; GWR; workers’ condition; environmental pollution shipbreaking; CO2 emission; GWR; workers’ condition; environmental pollution
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Mitra, N.; Shahriar, S.A.; Lovely, N.; Khan, M.S.; Rak, A.E.; Kar, S.P.; Khaleque, M.A.; Amin, M.F.M.; Kayes, I.; Salam, M.A. Assessing Energy-Based CO2 Emission and Workers’ Health Risks at the Shipbreaking Industries in Bangladesh. Environments 2020, 7, 35.

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