A Reliable Seawater Desalination System Based on Membrane Technology and Biotechnology Considering Reduction of the Environmental Impact
- Low-pressure SWRO membranes.
- Next generation energy recovery devices (ERD).
- Low-pressure multistage SWRO systems (LMS): SWRO Plant Image Integrated by Mega-ton Technologies.
- Energy Recovery from SWRO Brine by PRO (pressure-retarded osmosis)
- New high durability high-pressure resin pipes.
- Biofouling monitoring technology: Bacterial Community Composition Change by Chemical.
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. Reliable Seawater Desalination System for Biofouling
2.1.1. History of Anti-Biofouling Trails for SWRO (Seawater Reverse Osmosis) System
2.1.2. Sterilization Effect by Chlorination on Marine Bacteria is Limited
2.1.3. Membrane Biofilm Formation Rate (mBFR)
2.1.4. Chlorine Sterilization Triggers Biofouling
2.1.5. The Effect of Chemical Addition on Microbial Community Structures
2.1.6. Comparison of Conventional Process and New Process Proposed by “Mega-ton Water System” Project
2.2. Verification of Biofouling Monitoring Technology in Arabian Gulf, Most Severe Biofouling Area and in the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia
- High-performance system for low-cost seawater using other Mega-ton Technologies are shown in Figure 3 as low-pressure multistage SWRO systems .
- High water recovery system by two-stage one pass up to 60%.
- Flux equalization by optimization of vessel configuration (two elements in one vessel).
- High-energy recovery by ERD.
- Newly developed polyamide membrane (TM820V-400) by Toray was used in this system.
- Pre-treatment is DMF (Dual Media Filter).
2.2.1. Pilot Plant Verification (500 m3/day) in the Arabian Gulf
2.2.2. Full Plant Verification of NEDO-SWCC Demonstration Project (10,000 m3/day) at the Red Sea, Ummluji, Saudi Arabia
- Reduce energy consumption by around 20% compared to that of conventional seawater desalination plants applying RO membranes.
- Reduce the construction cost by reducing the capacity of the pretreatment facilities, which will be enabled by lowering the seawater intake.
- Biofouling monitoring technology using mBFR is applied to this project.
- A reliable seawater desalination system based on membrane technology and biotechnology for considering environmental impacts were established as an innovative paradigm shift of the biofouling concept.
- We confirmed that the chemical addition of chlorine and SBS triggers biofouling.
- Biofouling monitoring technology using mBFR was a good indicator of reliable seawater desalination system design and operation.
- This biofouling monitoring technology using mBFR was verified in a pilot test, located in Al Jubail, DTRI and Saudi Arabia during one year.
- The next step of the post-megaton project is the verification of this technology at a full-scale plant-10,000 m3/day in Ummluji, Saudi Arabia.
Conflicts of Interest
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Kurihara, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Ito, Y. A Reliable Seawater Desalination System Based on Membrane Technology and Biotechnology Considering Reduction of the Environmental Impact. Environments 2018, 5, 127. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5120127
Kurihara M, Takeuchi H, Ito Y. A Reliable Seawater Desalination System Based on Membrane Technology and Biotechnology Considering Reduction of the Environmental Impact. Environments. 2018; 5(12):127. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5120127Chicago/Turabian Style
Kurihara, Masaru, Hiromu Takeuchi, and Yohito Ito. 2018. "A Reliable Seawater Desalination System Based on Membrane Technology and Biotechnology Considering Reduction of the Environmental Impact" Environments 5, no. 12: 127. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5120127