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Bioremediation of Polluted Soil Sites with Crude Oil Hydrocarbons Using Carrot Peel Waste

1
Department of Nature and Life Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Algiers, 1 Benyoucef Benkhedda, 2 Street Didouche Mourad, Algiers 16000, Algeria
2
Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineer Sciences, University of M’Hamed Bougara, Boumerdès 35000, Algeria
3
Department of Soil Sciences and Agri-Food Engineering, Centre in Green Chemistry and Catalysis (CGCC), Université Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
4
Laboratory of Soft Technology, Valorization, Physical-Chemistry of Biological Materials and Biodiversity, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of M’Hamed Bougara, Boumerdès 35000, Algeria
5
Laboratries Division/ SONATRACH, Avenue 1st November, Boumerdès 35000, Algeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The late professor Khaled Belkacemi passed away in the terrorist attack perpetrated at Quebec City on 29 January 2017.
Environments 2018, 5(11), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5110124
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils)
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Abstract

The biostimulation potentials of carrot peel waste and carob kibbles for bioremediation of crude petroleum-oil polluted soil were investigated. Temperature, pH, moisture, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and changes in microbial counts during 45 days were monitored when 4 mL of carrot peel waste or carob kibbles media were added to 200 g of crude oil polluted soil samples. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to compare hydrocarbon present in the crude oil polluted soil and in pure fuel, composition of crude oil polluted soil was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the TPH was measured by distillation using distiller mud. The results showed that, at the end of experiments, the concentration of TPH decreased in crude oil polluted soil containing carrot peel waste with a percentage of 27 ± 1.90% followed by crude oil polluted soil containing carob kibbles (34 ± 1.80%) and in the unamended control soil (36 ± 1.27%), respectively. The log [Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/g] of total heterotrophic bacteria in the crude oil polluted soil increased from 10.46 ± 0.91 to 13.26 ± 0.84 for carrot peel waste, from 11.01 ± 0.56 to 11.99 ± 0.77 for carob kibbles and from 8.18 ± 0.39 to 8.84 ± 0.84 for control, respectively. Such results demonstrated that carrot peel could be used to enhance activities of the microbial hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during bioremediation of crude petroleum-oil polluted soil. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodegradation; biostimulation; carrot peel waste; carob kibbles; crude oil polluted soil biodegradation; biostimulation; carrot peel waste; carob kibbles; crude oil polluted soil
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Hamoudi-Belarbi, L.; Hamoudi, S.; Belkacemi, K.; Nouri, L.; Bendifallah, L.; Khodja, M. Bioremediation of Polluted Soil Sites with Crude Oil Hydrocarbons Using Carrot Peel Waste. Environments 2018, 5, 124.

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