Next Article in Journal
Gut–Liver Axis: How Do Gut Bacteria Influence the Liver?
Next Article in Special Issue
Neuroimaging of Traumatic Brain Injury
Previous Article in Journal
It Takes a Village: Multidisciplinary Approach to Screening and Prevention of Pediatric Sleep Issues
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Genotype, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and the Development of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA
2
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
3
Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA
4
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA
5
Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
6
Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA
7
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6030078
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury)
  |  
PDF [994 KB, uploaded 14 September 2018]
  |  

Abstract

The annual incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is 3.8 million in the USA with 10–15% experiencing persistent morbidity beyond one year. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, can occur with repetitive MTBI. Risk factors for CTE are challenging to identify because injury mechanisms of MTBI are heterogeneous, clinical manifestations and management vary, and CTE is a postmortem diagnosis, making prospective studies difficult. There is growing interest in the genetic influence on head trauma and development of CTE. Apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) associates with many neurologic diseases, and consensus on the ε4 allele as a risk factor is lacking. This review investigates the influence of APOE-ε4 on MTBI and CTE. A comprehensive PubMed literature search (1966 to 12 June 2018) identified 24 unique reports on the topic (19 MTBI studies: 8 athletic, 5 military, 6 population-based; 5 CTE studies: 4 athletic and military, 1 leucotomy group). APOE-ε4 genotype is found to associate with outcomes in 4/8 athletic reports, 3/5 military reports, and 5/6 population-based reports following MTBI. Evidence on the association between APOE-ε4 and CTE from case series is equivocal. Refining modalities to aid CTE diagnosis in larger samples is needed in MTBI. View Full-Text
Keywords: apolipoprotein E; chronic traumatic encephalopathy; concussion; genetic risk factors; mild traumatic brain injury; neurodegenerative disorders apolipoprotein E; chronic traumatic encephalopathy; concussion; genetic risk factors; mild traumatic brain injury; neurodegenerative disorders
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, H.; Ordaz, A.; Upadhyayula, P.S.; Gillis-Buck, E.M.; Suen, C.G.; Melhado, C.G.; Mohammed, N.; Lam, T.; Yue, J.K. Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Genotype, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and the Development of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 78.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Med. Sci. EISSN 2076-3271 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top