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The Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis: A Potential Therapeutic Avenue

Gut–Liver Axis: How Do Gut Bacteria Influence the Liver?

Department of Internal Medicine 2nd, Thuringia-Clinic Saalfeld, Teaching Hospital of the University of Jena, 68, D-07318 Jena, Germany
1st Department of Internal Medicine, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
Department of Medicine, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02135, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 79;
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Potential of the Microbiome)
Chronic liver diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, gut dysbiosis was identified as an important factor in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. The relationship between gut microbiota and the liver is still not well understood; however, dysfunction of the gut mucosal barrier (“leaky gut”) and increased bacterial translocation into the liver via the gut–liver axis probably play crucial roles in liver disease development and progression. The liver is an important immunological organ, and, after exposure to gut-derived bacteria via portal circulation, it responds with activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, leading to hepatic injury. A better understanding of the pathophysiological links among gut dysbiosis, the integrity of the gut barrier, and the hepatic immune response to gut-derived factors is essential for the development of new therapies to treat chronic liver diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; dysbiosis; chronic liver diseases gut microbiota; dysbiosis; chronic liver diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Konturek, P.C.; Harsch, I.A.; Konturek, K.; Schink, M.; Konturek, T.; Neurath, M.F.; Zopf, Y. Gut–Liver Axis: How Do Gut Bacteria Influence the Liver? Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 79.

AMA Style

Konturek PC, Harsch IA, Konturek K, Schink M, Konturek T, Neurath MF, Zopf Y. Gut–Liver Axis: How Do Gut Bacteria Influence the Liver? Medical Sciences. 2018; 6(3):79.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Konturek, Peter C., Igor A. Harsch, Kathrin Konturek, Monic Schink, Thomas Konturek, Markus F. Neurath, and Yurdaguel Zopf. 2018. "Gut–Liver Axis: How Do Gut Bacteria Influence the Liver?" Medical Sciences 6, no. 3: 79.

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