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Gut–Liver Axis: How Do Gut Bacteria Influence the Liver?

1
Department of Internal Medicine 2nd, Thuringia-Clinic Saalfeld, Teaching Hospital of the University of Jena, 68, D-07318 Jena, Germany
2
1st Department of Internal Medicine, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
3
Department of Medicine, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02135, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6030079
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Potential of the Microbiome)
Chronic liver diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, gut dysbiosis was identified as an important factor in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. The relationship between gut microbiota and the liver is still not well understood; however, dysfunction of the gut mucosal barrier (“leaky gut”) and increased bacterial translocation into the liver via the gut–liver axis probably play crucial roles in liver disease development and progression. The liver is an important immunological organ, and, after exposure to gut-derived bacteria via portal circulation, it responds with activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, leading to hepatic injury. A better understanding of the pathophysiological links among gut dysbiosis, the integrity of the gut barrier, and the hepatic immune response to gut-derived factors is essential for the development of new therapies to treat chronic liver diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; dysbiosis; chronic liver diseases gut microbiota; dysbiosis; chronic liver diseases
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Konturek, P.C.; Harsch, I.A.; Konturek, K.; Schink, M.; Konturek, T.; Neurath, M.F.; Zopf, Y. Gut–Liver Axis: How Do Gut Bacteria Influence the Liver? Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 79.

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