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Magnetic Properties and Redox State of Impact Glasses: A Review and New Case Studies from Siberia

1
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Coll. France, INRA, CEREGE, 13545 Aix-en-Provence, France
2
Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan Federal University, 4/5 Kremlyovskaya Str., 420008 Kazan, Russia
3
Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russia
4
St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
5
A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI), Sredny prospect 74, 199106 St. Petersburg, Russia
6
V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 19 Kosygin str., 119991 Moscow, Russia
7
School of Science and Technology-Geology division, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, 62032 Camerino (MC), Italy
8
CNR-IOM-OGG c/o ESRF, 71 Avenue des Martyrs CS 40220, F-38043 Grenoble, France
9
Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, UMR5274, 38041 Grenoble, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050225
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Magnetic Analysis of Geological Processes)
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Abstract

High velocity impacts produce melts that solidify as ejected or in-situ glasses. We provide a review of their peculiar magnetic properties, as well as a new detailed study of four glasses from Siberia: El’gygytgyn, Popigai, urengoites, and South-Ural glass (on a total of 24 different craters or strewn-fields). Two types of behavior appear: 1) purely paramagnetic with ferromagnetic impurities at most of the order of 10 ppm; this corresponds to the five tektite strewn-fields (including the new one from Belize), urengoites, and Darwin glass. Oxidation state, based in particular on X-ray spectroscopy, is mostly restricted to Fe2+; 2) variable and up to strong ferromagnetic component, up to the 1 wt % range, mostly due to substituted magnetite often in superparamagnetic state. Accordingly, bulk oxidation state is intermediate between Fe2+ and Fe3+, although metallic iron, hematite, and pyrrhotite are sometimes encountered. Various applications of these magnetic properties are reviewed in the field of paleomagnetism, magnetic anomalies, recognition of glass origin, and formation processes.
Keywords: magnetic properties; impact glasses; redox state; Popigai impact glasses; El’gygytgyn impact glasses; urengoites; South-Ural glass magnetic properties; impact glasses; redox state; Popigai impact glasses; El’gygytgyn impact glasses; urengoites; South-Ural glass
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rochette, P.; Bezaeva, N.S.; Kosterov, A.; Gattacceca, J.; Masaitis, V.L.; Badyukov, D.D.; Giuli, G.; Lepore, G.O.; Beck, P. Magnetic Properties and Redox State of Impact Glasses: A Review and New Case Studies from Siberia. Geosciences 2019, 9, 225.

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