# Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Tsunami Source Models for Reproducing Tsunami Inundation Features

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Data

#### 2.1. Bathymetry

#### 2.2. Tsunami Waveform Data

#### 2.3. Field Survey Data

#### 2.4. Tsunami Source Models

## 3. Method

#### 3.1. Tsunami Numerical Simulation

#### 3.2. Validation of Source Models

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Tsunami Propagation

#### 4.2. Synthetic Tsunami Waveforms

#### 4.3. Inundation Depths

## 5. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**(

**a**) Fault slip distribution and corresponding coseismic displacement was calculated using model A (Fujii et al. [1]). The blue star indicates the location of the epicentre as per the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The black rectangles show the target areas used for the tsunami inundation modelling. (

**b**) Total slip distribution and corresponding coseismic displacement was calculated using earthquake source model B ([9]). The triangles and squares indicate the location of the coastal tide gauge and offshore GPS wave gauge stations, respectively. Colours indicate the operating agencies (Green: the Nationwide Ocean Wave Information Network for Ports and HArbourS (NOWPHAS) of Japan; yellow: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); and light blue: the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant of the Tohoku Electric Power Company of Japan). The contour lines in the left panels are drawn at 1-m intervals.

**Figure 2.**Spatio-temporal slip distribution of the earthquake source proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japan [9]. The blue star indicates the epicentre (JMA).

**Figure 3.**Snapshots at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min of tsunami propagation. (

**a**) Snapshots calculated from the tsunami source model proposed by Fujii et al. [1]; (

**b**) Snapshots calculated using the spatio-temporal earthquake slip distribution proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japan [9]. The blue star indicates the location of the epicentre.

**Figure 6.**Onagawa computational area. (

**a**) Maximum inundation depth computed using the tsunami source published by Fujii et al. [1]; (

**b**) Maximum inundation depth estimated using the earthquake source developed by the Cabinet Office of Japan (Cabinet Office 2012); (

**c**) Difference in the maximum inundation depth between the Fujii et al. [1] and the Cabinet Office [9] models. The x symbols show the locations of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) measurements. The black line indicates the inundation limits estimated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI); (

**d**) Comparison between the JSCE field survey data and the computed inundation depths. The triangles and circles show the computed inundation depths using the Fujii et al. [1] model and the Cabinet Office [1] model, respectively.

**Figure 7.**Sendai computational area. (

**a**) Maximum inundation depth computed using the tsunami source published by Fujii et al. [1]; (

**b**) Maximum inundation depth estimated using the earthquake source developed by the Cabinet Office of Japan ([9]); (

**c**) The difference in the maximum inundation depth between the Fujii et al. [1] model and measured inundation depth; (

**d**) The difference in the maximum inundation depth between the Cabinet Office [9] model and measured inundation depth. The x symbols show the locations of the JSCE measurements. The black line indicates the inundation limits estimated by the GSI.

Model | Onagawa | Sendai | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

K | $\mathit{\kappa}$ | K | $\mathit{\kappa}$ | |

Fujii et al. [1] | 0.45 | 1.11 | 0.58 | 1.11 |

Cabinet Office model | 0.90 | 1.15 | 0.77 | 1.12 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Adriano, B.; Hayashi, S.; Koshimura, S. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Tsunami Source Models for Reproducing Tsunami Inundation Features. *Geosciences* **2018**, *8*, 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8010003

**AMA Style**

Adriano B, Hayashi S, Koshimura S. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Tsunami Source Models for Reproducing Tsunami Inundation Features. *Geosciences*. 2018; 8(1):3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8010003

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Adriano, Bruno, Satomi Hayashi, and Shunichi Koshimura. 2018. "Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Tsunami Source Models for Reproducing Tsunami Inundation Features" *Geosciences* 8, no. 1: 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8010003