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Open AccessArticle

Overtopping of Coastal Structures by Tsunami Waves

Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8563, Japan
Department of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, P.O. Box 5048, Delft 2600GA, The Netherlands
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ookubo, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON CBY A306, Canada
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2017, 7(4), 121;
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami)
Following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Japanese tsunami protection guidelines stipulate that coastal defences should ensure that settlements are shielded from the coastal inundation that would result from Level 1 tsunami events (with return periods in the order of about 100 years). However, the overtopping mechanism and leeward inundation heights of tsunami bores as they hit coastal structures has received little attention in the past. To ascertain this phenomenon, the authors conducted physical experiments using a dam-break mechanism, which could generate bores that overtopped different types of structures. The results indicate that it is necessary to move away from only considering the tsunami inundation height at the beach, and also consider the bore velocity as it approaches the onshore area. The authors also prepared a simple, conservative method of estimating the inundation height after a structure of a given height, provided that the incident bore velocity and height are known. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal dyke; dam break; tsunami; overtopping; evacuation coastal dyke; dam break; tsunami; overtopping; evacuation
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Esteban, M.; Glasbergen, T.; Takabatake, T.; Hofland, B.; Nishizaki, S.; Nishida, Y.; Stolle, J.; Nistor, I.; Bricker, J.; Takagi, H.; Shibayama, T. Overtopping of Coastal Structures by Tsunami Waves. Geosciences 2017, 7, 121.

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