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Article

Testing the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale on Data Derived from the Earthquakes of 1626, 1759, 1819, and 1904 in Fennoscandia, Northern Europe

1
Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
3
Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, 123242 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2021, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010014
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 25 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Environmental Effects in the Historical and Recent Data)
Earthquake environmental effects (EEEs) were compiled for the earthquakes of 1626, 1759, 1819, and 1904 in the Fennoscandian Peninsula, northern Europe. The principal source of information was the contemporary newspaper press. Macroseismic questionnaires collected in 1759 and 1904 were also consulted. We prepared maps showing newly discovered EEEs together with previously known EEEs and analyzed their spatial distribution. We assigned intensities based on the 2007 Environmental Seismic Intensity (ESI) scale to 27 selected localities and compared them to intensities assigned based on the 1998 European Macroseismic Scale. While the overall agreement between the scales is good, intensities may remain uncertain due to the sparsity of written documentation. The collected data sets are most probably incomplete but still show that EEEs are not unprecedented cases in the target region. The findings include landslides and rockfalls as well as cascade effects with a risk potential and widespread water movements up to long distances. The winter earthquake of 1759 cracked ice over a large area. This investigation demonstrates that the ESI scale also has practical importance for regions with infrequent EEEs. View Full-Text
Keywords: historical seismology; earthquake environmental effect; environmental seismic intensity scale; macroseismic intensity; newspaper; Kattegat earthquake of 1759; Lurøy; Norway; earthquake of 1819; Oslofjord earthquake of 1904 historical seismology; earthquake environmental effect; environmental seismic intensity scale; macroseismic intensity; newspaper; Kattegat earthquake of 1759; Lurøy; Norway; earthquake of 1819; Oslofjord earthquake of 1904
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mäntyniemi, P.; Sørensen, M.B.; Tatevossian, R.E. Testing the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale on Data Derived from the Earthquakes of 1626, 1759, 1819, and 1904 in Fennoscandia, Northern Europe. Geosciences 2021, 11, 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010014

AMA Style

Mäntyniemi P, Sørensen MB, Tatevossian RE. Testing the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale on Data Derived from the Earthquakes of 1626, 1759, 1819, and 1904 in Fennoscandia, Northern Europe. Geosciences. 2021; 11(1):14. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mäntyniemi, Päivi, Mathilde B. Sørensen, and Ruben E. Tatevossian. 2021. "Testing the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale on Data Derived from the Earthquakes of 1626, 1759, 1819, and 1904 in Fennoscandia, Northern Europe" Geosciences 11, no. 1: 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010014

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