Next Article in Journal
Comparison Between Non-Invasive Methane Measurement Techniques in Cattle
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Feeding, Sport Management, and Routine Care of the Chilean Corralero Horse during Rodeo Season
Previous Article in Journal
The Usefulness of Retinoic Acid Supplementation during In Vitro Oocyte Maturation for the In Vitro Embryo Production of Livestock: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact of Year-Round Grazing by Horses on Pasture Nutrient Dynamics and the Correlation with Pasture Nutrient Content and Fecal Nutrient Composition
Open AccessArticle

Eye Blink Rates and Eyelid Twitches as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress in the Domestic Horse

1
Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Campbell Centre for the Study of Animal Welfare, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(8), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080562
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horse Feeding and Management)
Eye blink rate has been used as an indicator of stress in humans and, due to its non-invasive nature, could be useful to measure stress in horses. Horses exhibit both full and half blinks as well as eyelid twitches. We exposed 33 horses to stressful situations such as separation from herdmates, denied access to feed and sudden introduction of a novel object, and determined that full and half eye blinks decrease in these situations. Feed restriction was the most stressful for the horse as indicated by increased heart rate, restless behaviour and high head position. The decrease in eye blink rate during feed restriction was paralleled with an increase in eyelid twitches. There was no increase in eyelid twitches or heart rate with the other treatments indicating that the horses did not find these overly stressful, but they did focus their attention more during these situations. Observation of eye blinks and eyelid twitches can provide important information on the stress level of horses with a decrease in eye blinks and an increase in eyelid twitches in stressful environments.
Physiological changes provide indices of stress responses, however, behavioural measures may be easier to determine. Spontaneous eye blink rate has potential as a non-invasive indicator of stress. Eyelid movements, along with heart rate (HR) and behaviour, from 33 horses were evaluated over four treatments: (1) control—horse in its normal paddock environment; (2) feed restriction—feed was withheld at regular feeding time; (3) separation—horse was removed from visual contact with their paddock mates; and (4) startle test—a ball was suddenly thrown on the ground in front of the horse. HR data was collected every five s throughout each three min test. Eyelid movements and behaviours were retrospectively determined from video recordings. A generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) procedure with Sidak’s multiple comparisons of least squares means demonstrated that both full blinks (16 ± 12b vs. 15 ± 15b vs. 13 ± 11b vs. 26 ± 20a full blinks/3 min ± SEM; a,b differ p < 0.006) and half blinks (34 ± 15ab vs. 27 ± 14bc vs. 25 ± 13c vs. 42 ± 22a half blinks/3 min ± SEM; a,b,c differ p < 0.0001) decreased during feed restriction, separation and the startle test compared to the control, respectively. Eyelid twitches occurred more frequently in feed restriction (p < 0.0001) along with an increased HR (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrates that spontaneous blink rate decreases while eyelid twitches increase when the horse experiences a stressful situation. View Full-Text
Keywords: spontaneous blink rate; eyelid twitches; stress; horse; behaviour; welfare spontaneous blink rate; eyelid twitches; stress; horse; behaviour; welfare
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Merkies, K.; Ready, C.; Farkas, L.; Hodder, A. Eye Blink Rates and Eyelid Twitches as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress in the Domestic Horse. Animals 2019, 9, 562.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop