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Open AccessArticle

Zinc and Copper with New Triazine Hydrazone Ligand: Two Novel Organic Complexes Enhanced Expression of Peptide Growth Factors and Cytokine Genes in Weaned V-Line Rabbit

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Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Moshtohor 13736, Egypt
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Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518, Egypt
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Institute of Animal Science, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Dafeng Street 1, Wushan, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640, China
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Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt
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Department of Physiology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Giza 12553, Egypt
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Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor 13736, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121134
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Animal Physiology: Performance and Welfare)
: Zinc and Copper are two important trace minerals, which are involved in numerous vital biological activities in animal’s body, such as enzyme activation and enhancement of immune function, growth, reproduction, DNA synthesis, cell division, and neurotransmitters production. Recently, the application of trace mineral organic complexes in animal feed received much more attention than the inorganic sources. The organic sources can contribute significantly to improving animals’ health and reproduction, as the minerals are more biologically available and absorbable than they are when coming from the inorganic sources. In this study, three injectable varieties of Zn and Cu supplementation, sulfate, inorganic (loaded with montmorillonite), and novel organic (ligand with triazine hydrazone), were tested with weaned rabbits. The results revealed that these three mineral types vary at the most biological responses, and only one category of our novel organic complexes provided consistent animal performance improvement, including weight gain, serum antioxidant, meat quality, intestine morphometry, and the expression of peptide growth factors and cytokine genes. To our knowledge, this is the first work on the Zn and Cu with triazine hydrazone ligand as two organic complexes in rabbits.
Two novel transitional organic Zn/Cu complexes based on a new biocompatible bidentate triazine–hydrazone ligand (Thz) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in this study. This study evaluated the effects of injecting 60 mg of Zn and 40 mg of Cu in three different forms, twice per week, for eight weeks on growth performance, expression of growth factors and cytokine genes, carcass yield, blood biochemicals, and intestinal morphology in weaned rabbits. The tested complexes were sulfate (Cu/ZnSO4), montmorillonite (Cu/Zn-Mnt), and triazine hydrazone (Cu/Zn-Thz). A total of 60 V-line weaned rabbits at four weeks of age were assigned to four treatments (n = 15), which were intramuscularly injected with 0.5 mL of either (1) saline (control) or saline containing (2) Cu/ZnSO4, (3) Cu/Zn-Mnt, or (4) Cu/Zn-Thz. Compared to the controls, the rabbits injected with Cu/Zn-Thz showed a higher (p < 0.01) growth rate, carcass yield (p < 0.05), and liver expression of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), growth hormone receptor (GHR), fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1), and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) (p < 0.05), as well as better jejunum morphometric variables (p < 0.05). On the other hand, mRNA of FGF1, TGF1, TCIRG1, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) were higher expressed (p < 0.05) in the spleen tissues of Cu/Zn-Mnt group. Collectively, the results indicated that our novel synthesized organic complexes of Zn/Cu-Thz proved to be a suitable feed supplement, as it increased rabbit productive performance through enhancing expression of peptide growth factors and cytokine genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc and copper supplementation; organic feed supplements; triazine hydrazone complex; peptide growth factor expression; rabbit growth rate zinc and copper supplementation; organic feed supplements; triazine hydrazone complex; peptide growth factor expression; rabbit growth rate
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Elokil, A.A.; Imbabi, T.A.; Mohamed, H.I.; Abouelezz, K.F.M.; Ahmed-Farid, O.; Shishay, G.; Sabike, I.I.; Liu, H. Zinc and Copper with New Triazine Hydrazone Ligand: Two Novel Organic Complexes Enhanced Expression of Peptide Growth Factors and Cytokine Genes in Weaned V-Line Rabbit. Animals 2019, 9, 1134.

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