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Effects of Fat Supplementation in Dairy Goats on Lipid Metabolism and Health Status

Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety “Carlo Cantoni”, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Animals 2019, 9(11), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110917
Received: 15 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 27 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
There is an increasing demand for information on the nutraceutical properties of food. Due to its bioactive components and high digestibility, goat milk is an excellent functional food. Dietary fat supplementation can further enrich the value of goat milk by modifying its acidic profile. Nevertheless, animal health can also benefit from lipids supplied with rations. In this review, the relationships between dietary fats and goat health status are summarized. Particular attention is paid to describing the effects of specific fatty acids on lipid metabolism and immune functionality.
Fat supplementation has long been used in dairy ruminant nutrition to increase the fat content of milk and supply energy during particularly challenging production phases. Throughout the years, advances have been made in the knowledge of metabolic pathways and technological treatments of dietary fatty acids (FAs), resulting in safer and more widely available lipid supplements. There is an awareness of the positive nutraceutical effects of the addition of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to fat supplementation, which provides consumers with healthier animal products through manipulation of their characteristics. If it is true that benefits to human health can be derived from the consumption of animal products rich in bioactive fatty acids (FAs), then it is reasonable to think that the same effect can occur in the animals to which the supplements are administered. Therefore, recent advances in fat supplementation of dairy goats with reference to the effect on health status have been summarized. In vivo trials and in vitro analysis on cultured cells, as well as histological and transcriptomic analyses of hepatic and adipose tissue, have been reviewed in order to assess documented relationships between specific FAs, lipid metabolism, and immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: transition dairy goat; polyunsaturated fatty acids; lipid metabolism; immune response transition dairy goat; polyunsaturated fatty acids; lipid metabolism; immune response
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Savoini, G.; Omodei Zorini, F.; Farina, G.; Agazzi, A.; Cattaneo, D.; Invernizzi, G. Effects of Fat Supplementation in Dairy Goats on Lipid Metabolism and Health Status. Animals 2019, 9, 917.

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