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Sanitary Emergencies at the Wild/Domestic Caprines Interface in Europe

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Turin, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(11), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110922
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 2 November 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
Even if it is an important achievement from a biodiversity conservation perspective, the documented increase in abundance of the four native European wild Caprinae (Rupicapra rupicapra, R. pyrenaica, Capra ibex, C. pyrenaica) can also be a matter of concern, since tighter and more frequent contact with sympatric livestock implies a greater risk of transmission of emerging and re-emerging pathogens. This article reviews the main transmissible diseases that, in a European scenario, are of greater significance from a conservation perspective. Epidemics causing major demographic downturns in wild Caprinae populations during recent decades were often triggered by pathogens transmitted at the livestock/wildlife interface.
Population density and distribution of the four native European wild Caprines (Rupicapra rupicapra, Rupicapra pyrenaica, Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica) have increased in recent decades. The improved conservation status of this valuable wildlife, while a welcome event in general terms, is at the same time a matter of concern since, intuitively, frequent and tighter contacts with sympatric livestock imply a greater risk of cross-transmission of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, and offer unexpected opportunities for pathogens to spread, persist and evolve. This article recalls the transmissible diseases that are perceived in Europe to be of major significance from a conservation perspective, namely brucellosis (BRC) by Brucella melitensis, infectious kerato-conjunctivitis (IKC) by Mycoplasma conjunctivae, pestivirosis (PV) by the border disease virus strain 4 and mange by Sarcoptes scabiei. Special emphasis has been put on the epidemiological role played by small domestic ruminants, and on key knowledge needed to implement evidence-based prevention and control strategies. Remarkably, scientific evidence demonstrates that major demographic downturns in affected wild Caprinae populations in recent decades have often been triggered by pathogens cross-transmitted at the livestock/wildlife interface. View Full-Text
Keywords: transmissible diseases; livestock/wildlife interface; sylvatic reservoir; Europe transmissible diseases; livestock/wildlife interface; sylvatic reservoir; Europe
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Rossi, L.; Tizzani, P.; Rambozzi, L.; Moroni, B.; Meneguz, P.G. Sanitary Emergencies at the Wild/Domestic Caprines Interface in Europe. Animals 2019, 9, 922.

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