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Open AccessArticle

Variability and Potential of Seaweeds as Ingredients of Ruminant Diets: An In Vitro Study

Estación Experimental del Zaidin (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas), Profesor Albareda, 1, 18008 Granada, Spain
Departamento de Producción Agraria. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Aarhus University, AU Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), PB 115, 1431 Ås, Norway
The Marine Science Institute, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, 8049 Bodø, Nordland, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(10), 851;
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Digestibility in Animal Nutritional Studies)
The use of seaweeds as ingredients of ruminant diets can be an alternative to conventional feedstuffs, but it is necessary to assess their nutritive value. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation of eight brown, red and green seaweed species collected in Norway during both spring and autumn. The in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of 17 diets composed of oat hay:concentrate in a 1:1 ratio, with the concentrate containing no seaweed or including one of the 16 seaweed samples, was also studied. Species and season determined differences in chemical composition and in vitro fermentation of seaweeds. Most of the tested seaweeds can be included in the diet (up to 200 g/kg concentrate) without negative effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation.
This study was designed to analyze the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation of eight seaweed species (Brown: Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Pelvetia canaliculata, Saccharina latissima; Red: Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.; Green: Cladophora rupestris) collected in Norway during spring and autumn. Moreover, the in vitro ruminal fermentation of seventeen diets composed of 1:1 oat hay:concentrate, without (control diet) or including seaweeds was studied. The ash and N contents were greater (p < 0.001) in seaweeds collected during spring than in autumn, but autumn-seaweeds had greater total extractable polyphenols. Nitrogen in red and green seaweeds was greater than 2.20 and in brown seaweeds, it was lower than 1.92 g/kg DM. Degradability after 24 h of fermentation was greater in spring seaweeds than in autumn, with Palmaria palmata showing the greatest value and Pelvetia canaliculata the lowest. Seaweeds differed in their fermentation pattern, and autumn Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Palmaria palmata were similar to high-starch feeds. The inclusion of seaweeds in the concentrate of a diet up to 200 g/kg concentrate produced only subtle effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweeds; chemical composition; in vitro rumen fermentation; goats; methane seaweeds; chemical composition; in vitro rumen fermentation; goats; methane
MDPI and ACS Style

de la Moneda, A.; Carro, M.D.; Weisbjerg, M.R.; Roleda, M.Y.; Lind, V.; Novoa-Garrido, M.; Molina-Alcaide, E. Variability and Potential of Seaweeds as Ingredients of Ruminant Diets: An In Vitro Study. Animals 2019, 9, 851.

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