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Article

Detection of Gastrointestinal Nematode Populations Resistant to Albendazole and Ivermectin in Sheep

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Centro Universitario UAEM-Temascaltepec, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, km 67.5. Carr. Fed. Toluca-Tejupilco, Temascaltepec, Estado de México, CP 51300, Mexico
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Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Salud Animal e Inicuidad, INIFAP. Carretera Federal Cuernavaca-Cuautla No. 8534/Col. Progreso. C.P. 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos/A.P. 206-CIVAC, Mexico
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Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(10), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100775
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Small Ruminants)
Gastrointestinal parasite infections represent a major welfare problem in small ruminants reared in extensive systems, which may be exacerbated by anthelmintic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two commonly used anthelmintic drugs in sheep reared in the Mexican temperate zone. We found that the genera Cooperia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes predominant in all experimental animals. We also found that the sheep flock naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in the temperate zone (i.e., central valley) of the State of Mexico exhibit anthelmintic resistance with marked and potentially detrimental effects on sheep welfare and production. Both albendazole and ivermectin proved to be only partly effective for the treatment of both Cooperia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Therefore, we suggest that nematode infections should be systematically monitored in order to implement integrated management strategies to control nematodiasis more effectively, limit anthelmintic resistance and promote sheep welfare and production.
Gastrointestinal parasite infections represent a major welfare problem in small ruminants reared in extensive systems, which may be exacerbated by anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, we aimed to study the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin in sheep. Eighty-six animals were selected from commercial farms in the temperate area of the State of Mexico at the age of seven months. These animals were randomly distributed into three groups: Group A, treated with albendazole, Group I, treated with ivermectin and Group C, left untreated. Faecal samples were collected before the anthelmintic was administered and 15 days post-treatment. Both Group A and Group I displayed a significant decrease of faecal egg counts when pre- and post-treatment values were compared (p = 0.003 and p = 0.049, respectively), and a significantly lower faecal egg count when compared with Group C after the treatment (p < 0.05). However, the faecal egg count reduction test showed that gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) developed anthelmintic resistance to both albendazole and ivermectin. The results of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allowed the identification of Cooperia spp., and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The allele-specific PCR results confirmed that T. colubriformis was resistant to albendazole. In conclusion, this study showed the presence of resistant GIN to albendazole and ivermectin in sheep reared in Mexican temperate zones. Therefore, nematode infections should be systematically monitored in order to implement integrated management strategies to prevent the spread of anthelmintic resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: sheep; gastrointestinal nematodes; anthelminthic resistance; benzimidazole; ivermectin sheep; gastrointestinal nematodes; anthelminthic resistance; benzimidazole; ivermectin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mondragón-Ancelmo, J.; Olmedo-Juárez, A.; Reyes-Guerrero, D.E.; Ramírez-Vargas, G.; Ariza-Román, A.E.; López-Arellano, M.E.; Gives, P.M.d.; Napolitano, F. Detection of Gastrointestinal Nematode Populations Resistant to Albendazole and Ivermectin in Sheep. Animals 2019, 9, 775. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100775

AMA Style

Mondragón-Ancelmo J, Olmedo-Juárez A, Reyes-Guerrero DE, Ramírez-Vargas G, Ariza-Román AE, López-Arellano ME, Gives PMd, Napolitano F. Detection of Gastrointestinal Nematode Populations Resistant to Albendazole and Ivermectin in Sheep. Animals. 2019; 9(10):775. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100775

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime, Agustín Olmedo-Juárez, David E. Reyes-Guerrero, Gabriel Ramírez-Vargas, Amairany E. Ariza-Román, María E. López-Arellano, Pedro M.d. Gives, and Fabio Napolitano. 2019. "Detection of Gastrointestinal Nematode Populations Resistant to Albendazole and Ivermectin in Sheep" Animals 9, no. 10: 775. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100775

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