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Open AccessArticle

Rein Tension in Transitions and Halts during Equestrian Dressage Training

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Sport Horse Science, 3145 Sandhill Road, Mason, MI 48854, USA
3
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7046, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(10), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100712
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 14 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics of the Exercising Animals)
In the equestrian dressage discipline, the transitions (changes) between gaits and into halts, occur often in riding sessions. Rein tension before, during and after the transitions between gaits, and the transitions into halts were studied. The vertical motion data for the horse’s head and croup, and rein tension data were collected from six professional riders, each riding three of their own horses during normal training sessions. The horse training levels varied from basic to advanced. The activities during the sessions were categorised into gaits, transitions between gaits and into halts based on video evaluation. The transitions were categorised according to whether they had intermediate steps that were not characteristic of the preceding or the following gait. The rein tension just before the transition was strongly related to rein tension during the transitions. There was slightly lower tension during the upward transitions than during the downward transitions. There was no difference in rein tension depending on whether intermediate steps were present or not. The left rein tension was generally lower than the right rein tension. The rein tension associated with the transitions and halts varied substantially between riders and also the horses. This information is useful for trainers seeking to understand the rein tension patterns associated with transitions.
In dressage, the performance of transitions between gaits and halts is an integral part of riding sessions. The study aimed to evaluate rein tension before, during and after the transitions between different gaits and the transitions into halts. The kinematic (inertial measurement units) data for the head and croup, and rein tension data, were collected (128 Hz) from six professional riders each riding three of their own horses, training levels varying from basic to advanced, during normal training sessions. The activities were categorised into gaits, halts and transitions based on video evaluation. The transitions were categorised as without (type 1) or with (type 2) intermediate steps that are not normally present in the gaits preceding or following the transition. The differences in the median rein tension before/during/after transitions, between the types and left/right reins were analysed in mixed models. The rein tension just before the transition was the strongest determinant of tension during the transition. The rein tension was slightly lower during upward transitions compared to downward transitions, reflecting the pattern of the preceding gait. Type 1 and 2 downward transitions were not different regarding rein tension. The left rein tension was lower than right rein tension. The rein tension associated with the transitions and halts varied substantially between riders and horses. The generally strong association of the gaits and their inherent biomechanics with rein tension should be taken into account when riding transitions and halts. View Full-Text
Keywords: transition; horse; gait; rein tension; dressage; kinematics transition; horse; gait; rein tension; dressage; kinematics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Egenvall, A.; Clayton, H.M.; Eisersiö, M.; Roepstorff, L.; Byström, A. Rein Tension in Transitions and Halts during Equestrian Dressage Training. Animals 2019, 9, 712.

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