Next Article in Journal
Identification of Estrus in Sows Based on Salivary Proteomics
Previous Article in Journal
Feeding Fiber-Bound Polyphenol Ingredients at Different Levels Modulates Colonic Postbiotics to Improve Gut Health in Cats
 
 
Article

Optimization of Milk Substitutes for the Artificial Rearing of Chinese Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

by 1, 1, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1, 1, 1,2,3,* and 1,2,3,*
1
National Resource Center for Non-Human Primates, National Research Facility for Phenotypic & Genetic Analysis of Model Animals (Primate Facility), Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650107, China
2
Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, and KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China
3
Kunming College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tadaaki Satou
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131655
Received: 11 May 2022 / Revised: 22 June 2022 / Accepted: 22 June 2022 / Published: 28 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
The Chinese tree shrew, a squirrel-like mammal, has been widely used as a laboratory animal in biological research. However, the low survival rate of the pups has seriously hindered the establishment of inbred lines of this species and further limited its wider use. We found a milk substitute appropriate for artificial rearing of Chinese tree shrew pups independent of any obvious adverse effects on their survival, health, and reproductive performance compared to those of the maternally reared pups. The successful optimization of a milk substitute for the artificial rearing of Chinese tree shrew pups may increase the availability of this experimental animal.
The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has the potential to replace the use of non-human primates in biomedical research. To increase the availability of this species, we have undertaken the ambitious task of establishing inbred lines of the Chinese tree shrew; however, we have been hindered by a low survival rate of inbred pups. Here, we report our artificial rearing (AR) of Chinese tree shrew pups using four different milk substitutes: the formula described by Tsang and Collins (milk TC) and three commercially available milk substitutes intended for possums (milk A and milk C) and for guinea pigs (milk B). We compared the effects of these milk substitutes and maternal milk on the daily milk consumption, growth performance, and survival of the pups. We also assessed the life span and reproductive performance of the F1 individuals given the best milk substitute as compared to the maternally reared (MR) pups. Milk B was found to be appropriate for AR. Pups fed with milk B had a high survival rate at the weaning age compared to those fed with the other milk substitutes. The AR pups fed with milk B had a life span similar to that of MR pups. AR females fed with milk B had an earlier age of the first reproduction, a larger number of litters, and a higher rate of survival of the offspring at the weaning age compared with the MR females. The successful optimization of a milk substitute for AR of Chinese tree shrew pups will undoubtedly facilitate the wide usage of this experimental animal. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial rearing; inbred line; milk substitute; tree shrew; survival artificial rearing; inbred line; milk substitute; tree shrew; survival
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, J.-Q.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, D.; Bi, R.; Ma, Y.; Li, Y.; Lv, L.-B.; Yao, Y.-G. Optimization of Milk Substitutes for the Artificial Rearing of Chinese Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Animals 2022, 12, 1655. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131655

AMA Style

Chen J-Q, Zhang Q, Yu D, Bi R, Ma Y, Li Y, Lv L-B, Yao Y-G. Optimization of Milk Substitutes for the Artificial Rearing of Chinese Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Animals. 2022; 12(13):1655. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131655

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Jia-Qi, Qingyu Zhang, Dandan Yu, Rui Bi, Yuhua Ma, Yijiang Li, Long-Bao Lv, and Yong-Gang Yao. 2022. "Optimization of Milk Substitutes for the Artificial Rearing of Chinese Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)" Animals 12, no. 13: 1655. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131655

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop