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Differential Gene Expression Associated with Soybean Oil Level in the Diet of Pigs

1
Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga 13635-900, SP, Brazil
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Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP, Brazil
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College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, GO, Brazil
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GIGA Medical Genomics, Unit of Animal Genomics, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos 70770-901, SP, Brazil
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College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
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AL Rae Centre for Genetics and Breeding, Massey University, Hamilton 3214, New Zealand
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College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga 13635-900, SP, Brazil
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DB Genética de Suínos, Patos de Minas 38706-000, MG, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pilar Hernandez
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131632
Received: 4 May 2022 / Revised: 15 June 2022 / Accepted: 20 June 2022 / Published: 25 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
Findings from the analysis of the pig transcriptome may help to better understand the biological mechanisms that can be modulated by the diet. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes from the skeletal muscle and liver samples of pigs fed diets with two different levels of soybean oil (1.5 or 3%). The FA profile in the tissues was modified by the diet mainly related to monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA). This nutrigenomics study verified the effect of different levels of soybean oil in the pig diet on the transcriptome profile of skeletal muscle and liver, where the higher level of soybean oil added to the diet led to a higher expression of genes targeting biological processes related to lipid oxidation and consequently to metabolic diseases and inflammation.
The aim of this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG) from the skeletal muscle and liver samples of animal models for metabolic diseases in humans. To perform the study, the fatty acid (FA) profile and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data of 35 samples of liver tissue (SOY1.5, n = 17 and SOY3.0, n = 18) and 36 samples of skeletal muscle (SOY1.5, n = 18 and SOY3.0, n = 18) of Large White pigs were analyzed. The FA profile of the tissues was modified by the diet, mainly those related to monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) FA. The skeletal muscle transcriptome analysis revealed 45 DEG (FDR 10%), and the functional enrichment analysis identified network maps related to inflammation, immune processes, and pathways associated with oxidative stress, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic dysfunction. For the liver tissue, the transcriptome profile analysis revealed 281 DEG, which participate in network maps related to neurodegenerative diseases. With this nutrigenomics study, we verified that different levels of soybean oil in the pig diet, an animal model for metabolic diseases in humans, affected the transcriptome profile of skeletal muscle and liver tissue. These findings may help to better understand the biological mechanisms that can be modulated by the diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acid; RNAseq; transcriptome; immune response; metabolism; hepatic tissue; Longissimus lomborum; animal model fatty acid; RNAseq; transcriptome; immune response; metabolism; hepatic tissue; Longissimus lomborum; animal model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fanalli, S.L.; da Silva, B.P.M.; Gomes, J.D.; de Almeida, V.V.; Freitas, F.A.O.; Moreira, G.C.M.; Silva-Vignato, B.; Afonso, J.; Reecy, J.; Koltes, J.; Koltes, D.; de Almeida Regitano, L.C.; Garrick, D.J.; de Carvalho Balieiro, J.C.; Meira, A.N.; Freitas, L.; Coutinho, L.L.; Fukumasu, H.; Mourão, G.B.; de Alencar, S.M.; Luchiari Filho, A.; Cesar, A.S.M. Differential Gene Expression Associated with Soybean Oil Level in the Diet of Pigs. Animals 2022, 12, 1632. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131632

AMA Style

Fanalli SL, da Silva BPM, Gomes JD, de Almeida VV, Freitas FAO, Moreira GCM, Silva-Vignato B, Afonso J, Reecy J, Koltes J, Koltes D, de Almeida Regitano LC, Garrick DJ, de Carvalho Balieiro JC, Meira AN, Freitas L, Coutinho LL, Fukumasu H, Mourão GB, de Alencar SM, Luchiari Filho A, Cesar ASM. Differential Gene Expression Associated with Soybean Oil Level in the Diet of Pigs. Animals. 2022; 12(13):1632. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131632

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fanalli, Simara Larissa, Bruna Pereira Martins da Silva, Julia Dezen Gomes, Vivian Vezzoni de Almeida, Felipe André Oliveira Freitas, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara Silva-Vignato, Juliana Afonso, James Reecy, James Koltes, Dawn Koltes, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano, Dorian John Garrick, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Ariana Nascimento Meira, Luciana Freitas, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Heidge Fukumasu, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Severino Matias de Alencar, Albino Luchiari Filho, and Aline Silva Mello Cesar. 2022. "Differential Gene Expression Associated with Soybean Oil Level in the Diet of Pigs" Animals 12, no. 13: 1632. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131632

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