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Article

Assessment of Neurodegenerative Changes in Turkeys Fed Diets with Different Proportions of Arginine and Methionine Relative to Lysine

1
Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Life Sciences, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Poultry Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ilias Giannenas
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121535
Received: 27 April 2022 / Revised: 8 June 2022 / Accepted: 9 June 2022 / Published: 14 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Advances in Poultry Nutrition and Production)
It is important to take care of a properly balanced amino acid composition in the diet in order to inhibit or delay the occurrence of processes and changes related to the destruction of nervous tissue. Therefore, an attempt was made in this manuscript to evaluate the effect of different ratios of the key amino acids arginine and methionine, relative to lysine, in relation to two turkey feeding standards. The amino acid guidelines formulated by British United Turkeys (BUT) suggest higher levels of lysine (Lys) in turkey diets than those recommended by the National Research Council (NRC). In order to assess the impact of such supplementation, we analyzed the level of indicators informing the presence or degree of advancement of neurodegenerative processes in the nervous tissue (the level of acetylcholinesterase and amyloid-β; the concentration of AChE complexes with amyloid-β and Tau protein, called glycosylated acetylcholinesterase (GAChE), indicative of the destruction of neurons). The level of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, or LRP-1, which facilitates the breakdown of toxic amyloid-β, was also assessed. In addition, the effect of different doses of these amino acids on neurodegenerative changes in DNA, especially the degree of methylation of histone proteins resulting from covalent modifications was compared between lysine and arginine residues.
We postulated that the use of optimal levels and proportions of Arg and Met relative to a low or high concentration of Lys in diets for meat turkeys would reduce the occurrence of metabolic disturbances in the nervous tissue that can lead to neurodegenerative changes. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various proportions of Lys, Arg, and Met in diets for turkeys, with a low content of Lys in accordance with NRC (Experiment 1) recommendations, and in diets with high Lys levels that are close to the recommendations of breeding companies (Experiment 2) on selected indicators of potential neurodegenerative effects in the brain and liver of turkeys. The Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 was conducted using 864 day-old turkey chicks randomly assigned to six groups, in eight replicates (6 groups × 18 birds × 8 replicates). A full description of the methodology can be found in previously published papers using the same experimental design. Indicators informing about the presence or advancement of neurodegenerative processes in the nervous tissue were determined in the brain and liver (level of: AChE, amyloid-β, GAChE, Tau protein, LRP1, and the degree of DNA methylation). It was established that in the case of both a low (National Research Council, NRC) and a high (British United Turkeys, BUT) level of Lys in the diet of turkeys, the Arg level can be reduced to 90% of the Lys level and Met to 30% of the Lys level, because this does not cause neurodegenerative changes in turkeys. Unfavorable neurodegenerative changes may appear if the Arg level is increased from 100 to 110% of the Lys level recommended by the NRC. However, due to the lack of such a relationship when Arg is increased from 100 to 110% of the Lys level recommended by BUT, at this stage of research no definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the risk of neurodegenerative changes caused by increasing Arg in the diet of turkeys. View Full-Text
Keywords: turkey; amino acid; neurodegeneration; methionine; lysine; arginine turkey; amino acid; neurodegeneration; methionine; lysine; arginine
MDPI and ACS Style

Krauze, M.; Ognik, K.; Mikulski, D.; Jankowski, J. Assessment of Neurodegenerative Changes in Turkeys Fed Diets with Different Proportions of Arginine and Methionine Relative to Lysine. Animals 2022, 12, 1535. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121535

AMA Style

Krauze M, Ognik K, Mikulski D, Jankowski J. Assessment of Neurodegenerative Changes in Turkeys Fed Diets with Different Proportions of Arginine and Methionine Relative to Lysine. Animals. 2022; 12(12):1535. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121535

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krauze, Magdalena, Katarzyna Ognik, Dariusz Mikulski, and Jan Jankowski. 2022. "Assessment of Neurodegenerative Changes in Turkeys Fed Diets with Different Proportions of Arginine and Methionine Relative to Lysine" Animals 12, no. 12: 1535. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121535

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