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Article

Enzymes Present in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps May Stimulate the Fibrogenic PGF Pathway in the Mare Endometrium

1
CIISA—Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, College of Agriculture, 3045-601 Coimbra, Portugal
3
Department of Reproductive Immunology and Pathology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of PAS, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mats H. T. Troedsson
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092615
Received: 23 July 2021 / Revised: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 6 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endometritis and Fibrosis: An Evolving Story)
Endometrosis is a fibrotic disease in mare endometrium whose pathological mechanisms remain obscure. Prostaglandin (PG)F2α, despite modulating reproductive physiological processes, may also provoke local pathological collagen deposition (fibrogenesis). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released during inflammation have been linked to fibrogenesis in several tissues. We have previously shown that enzymes found in NETs increase in vitro collagen production in mare endometrium. In this study, activation of PGF-pathway in equine endometrial explants challenged in vitro by enzymes found in NETs is shown. Our results indicate that both endocrine microenvironment (estrous cycle phase) and healthy or pathological conditions of endometrial tissues play an important role in PGF-pathway activation. In the endometrium of the follicular phase, we have observed both high production of PGF and/or PGF2α receptor gene transcription under the action of enzymes found in NETs, both conditions associated with fibrogenesis in other tissues. Nevertheless, transcription of the PGF receptor gene does not appear to be hormone-dependent, albeit their levels seem to be dependent on endometrial category in the mid-luteal phase. This study suggests that enzymes existing in NETs may instigate changes on PGF mediators, which may become an additional mechanism of fibrogenesis in mare endometrium.
Endometrosis, a fibrotic disease of mare endometrium, impairs uterine function. Prostaglandins (PG), despite modulating reproductive physiological functions, may also cause local pathological collagen deposition (fibrogenesis). We have previously shown that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may also favor mare endometrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enzymes present in NETs on PGF-pathway activation. Kenney and Doig’s type I/IIA and IIB/III mare endometria, from follicular phase (FLP) and mid-luteal (MLP) phase, were cultured in vitro in the presence of NETs enzymes (elastase, cathepsin-G or myeloperoxidase). Production of PGF (EIA) and transcription (qPCR) of its synthases (PTGS2, AKR1C3) and receptor (PTGFR) genes were evaluated. PGF and PTGFR were influenced by endometrial category and estrous cycle phase. In FLP endometrium, NETs enzymes induced both high PGF production and/or PTGFR transcription. In MLP type I/IIA tissues, down-regulation of PTGFR transcripts occurred. However, in MLP type IIB/III endometrium, high levels of PTGFR transcripts were induced by NETs enzymes. As PGF2α-pathway activation facilitates fibrogenesis in other tissues, PGF2α may be involved in endometrosis pathogenesis. In the mare, the endocrine microenvironment of healthy and pathological endometrium might modulate the PGF pathway, as well as fibrosis outcome on endometrium challenged by NETs enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutrophil extracellular traps; fibrosis; endometrium; endometrosis; horse; PGF; PGF receptor neutrophil extracellular traps; fibrosis; endometrium; endometrosis; horse; PGF; PGF receptor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rebordão, M.R.; Amaral, A.; Fernandes, C.; Silva, E.; Lukasik, K.; Szóstek-Mioduchowska, A.; Pinto-Bravo, P.; Galvão, A.; Skarzynski, D.J.; Ferreira-Dias, G. Enzymes Present in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps May Stimulate the Fibrogenic PGF Pathway in the Mare Endometrium. Animals 2021, 11, 2615. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092615

AMA Style

Rebordão MR, Amaral A, Fernandes C, Silva E, Lukasik K, Szóstek-Mioduchowska A, Pinto-Bravo P, Galvão A, Skarzynski DJ, Ferreira-Dias G. Enzymes Present in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps May Stimulate the Fibrogenic PGF Pathway in the Mare Endometrium. Animals. 2021; 11(9):2615. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092615

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rebordão, Maria R., Ana Amaral, Carina Fernandes, Elisabete Silva, Karolina Lukasik, Anna Szóstek-Mioduchowska, Pedro Pinto-Bravo, António Galvão, Dariusz J. Skarzynski, and Graça Ferreira-Dias. 2021. "Enzymes Present in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps May Stimulate the Fibrogenic PGF Pathway in the Mare Endometrium" Animals 11, no. 9: 2615. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092615

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