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Article

Effect of Sustained Administration of Thymol on Its Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability in Rabbits

1
Centre of Biosciences, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Animal Physiology, Soltesovej 4-6, 040 01 Kosice, Slovakia
2
University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Komenskeho 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovakia
3
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Wien, Austria
4
National Agricultural and Food Centre, Hlohovecka 2, 951 41 Nitra-Lužianky, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandro Dal Bosco and Cesare Castellini
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092595
Received: 3 August 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioavailability and metabolic path of thymol, a major constituent of Thymus vulgaris L., in the rabbit organism. Oral bioavailability is a key parameter affecting the efficacy of substances, but it is not surprising that it does not correlate satisfactorily with efficacy. The main limitation factors are rate of absorption, metabolism, and excretion processes. In this work, the thymol metabolic path in the rabbit organism was determined for the first time after its sustained oral administration. We confirm intensive absorption of thymol from the gastrointestinal tract; our results point to metabolism and accumulation in kidney tissue and intensive metabolic and excretion processes in the liver. Some metabolic processes were present also after thymol withdrawal. Thymol as a lipophilic substance was found only in trace amounts in fat and muscle tissue as a consequence of its conversion into hydrophilic metabolite and greater elimination in the rabbit organism. This paper highlights the insufficient knowledge of modes of action of plant compounds in animal organisms.
The objective of this study was the detection of thymol in rabbit plasma, tissues, large intestinal content, and faeces. Forty-eight rabbits were divided into control and experimental groups (thymol 250 mg/kg feed). Thymol was administered for 21 days and then withdrawn for 7 days. Concentration of thymol in the intestinal wall (IW) was significantly higher than in plasma (p < 0.05) and liver (p < 0.05); in the kidneys it was significantly higher than in plasma (p < 0.05) and liver (p < 0.05) during thymol addition. Thymol in IW was significantly higher than in plasma also after withdrawal (p < 0.01). Significant correlation (rs = −1.000, p < 0.01) between IW and plasma points to the intensive absorption of thymol from the intestine, while the correlation between plasma and liver (rs = 0.786, p < 0.05) indicates intensive biotransformation and excretion processes in liver. Significant correlation between liver and kidney (rs = 0.738, p < 0.05) confirms the intensive metabolism of thymol in the kidney. During the withdrawal period, thymol was detected above trace amounts only in faeces, and was significantly higher than in the colon during both periods (p < 0.01). Results show intensive biotransformation of thymol in the rabbit organism. View Full-Text
Keywords: rabbit; thymol; absorption; distribution; accumulation; excretion rabbit; thymol; absorption; distribution; accumulation; excretion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bacova, K.; Eglseer, K.Z.; Räuber, G.K.; Chrastinova, L.; Laukova, A.; Takacsova, M.; Simonova, M.P.; Placha, I. Effect of Sustained Administration of Thymol on Its Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability in Rabbits. Animals 2021, 11, 2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092595

AMA Style

Bacova K, Eglseer KZ, Räuber GK, Chrastinova L, Laukova A, Takacsova M, Simonova MP, Placha I. Effect of Sustained Administration of Thymol on Its Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability in Rabbits. Animals. 2021; 11(9):2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092595

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bacova, Kristina, Karin Z. Eglseer, Gesine K. Räuber, Lubica Chrastinova, Andrea Laukova, Margareta Takacsova, Monika P. Simonova, and Iveta Placha. 2021. "Effect of Sustained Administration of Thymol on Its Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability in Rabbits" Animals 11, no. 9: 2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092595

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