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Article

Cannabis Extract Has a Positive–Immunostimulating Effect through Proteolytic System and Metabolic Compounds of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Workers

Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
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Academic Editor: Alessia Giannetto
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082190
Received: 6 June 2021 / Revised: 19 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
The aim of our study was to test the immunostimulating effect of a diet with hemp extract on the resistance of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). The experiment compared the effect of supplementation between the bees receiving the extract in the form of a mixture with sugar syrup and on the strip with the extract, compared to the bees that had no contact with substance. In order to determine this effect, the biochemical indicators were analyzed: the proteolytic system (proteases, protease inhibitors, total protein concentration) responsible for the fight against pathogens/parasites, biomarkers (ALT, AST, ALP), and the basic components of metabolism (glucose and urea concentrations). Parameters were determined in the hemolymph of 2- and 7-day-old workers. Hemp extracts caused an increase in the protein concentrations. Regardless of the method of administration, proteases decreased. Protease inhibitors increased, except supplementation on strips where the activity decreased. The biomarker activities increased in the control group and workers feeding extract in syrup and decreased in workers supplemented with the extract on strips. The results of the metabolic component were as follows: glucose and urea concentrations indicate that the extract will not adversely affect metabolic changes in the insect’s organism. Hemp extract improves the natural immunity of bees.
In the study, we assessed the effect of hemp extract on activities of resistance parameters and the metabolic compound concentration in adult workers’ hemolymph. Bees were divided into the following groups: (1) control group fed with mixture of sugar and water-glycerine solution, (2) experimental group with pure sugar syrup and inside with cotton strips soaked with hemp extract, (3) experimental group with a mixture of sugar syrup with hemp extract. Hemp extracts caused an increase in the protein concentrations and reduced the protease activities regardless of the administration method. The protease inhibitor activities were decreased only in the group that received hemp extract on the strips. The biomarker activities (ALP, ALT, AST) increased from the control group and workers feeding extract in syrup and decreased in workers supplemented with the extract on strips. In young, 2-day-old workers, the glucose concentration was higher in the groups feeding with the extract than in the control. Hemp extract influenced an increase in urea concentrations in workers’ hemolymph in comparison with the control. The hemp supplementation positively influences the immune system of workers, and the appropriate method of administration may be adapted to the health problems of bees. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemolymph; bees’ resistance; immunity of insect; hemp extract; supplementation of bees; glucose; urea; proteolytic enzymes; biochemical pathway; pollinators; biochemistry hemolymph; bees’ resistance; immunity of insect; hemp extract; supplementation of bees; glucose; urea; proteolytic enzymes; biochemical pathway; pollinators; biochemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Skowronek, P.; Wójcik, Ł.; Strachecka, A. Cannabis Extract Has a Positive–Immunostimulating Effect through Proteolytic System and Metabolic Compounds of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Workers. Animals 2021, 11, 2190. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082190

AMA Style

Skowronek P, Wójcik Ł, Strachecka A. Cannabis Extract Has a Positive–Immunostimulating Effect through Proteolytic System and Metabolic Compounds of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Workers. Animals. 2021; 11(8):2190. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082190

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skowronek, Patrycja, Łukasz Wójcik, and Aneta Strachecka. 2021. "Cannabis Extract Has a Positive–Immunostimulating Effect through Proteolytic System and Metabolic Compounds of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Workers" Animals 11, no. 8: 2190. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082190

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