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Communication

Enteric Viral Infections among Domesticated South American Camelids: First Detection of Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Camelids

1
Laboratorio de Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Apartado 03-5137, Peru
2
Laboratorio de Zootecnia y Producción Agropecuaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Apartado 03-5137, Peru
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Laboratorio de Farmacología y Toxicología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Apartado 03-5137, Peru
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Laboratorio de Virología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Apartado 03-5137, Peru
5
Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, RJ, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giulia Dowgier and Rosina Ehmann
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051455
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Viruses in the Pandemic Era)
South American camelids (SACs) constitute the greatest livestock wealth of the Andean populations. Approximately half a million people from the high Andean areas are dedicated to the breeding of SACs as their main activity. In general, infectious diseases, particularly diarrheal infections, cause high morbidity and mortality in offspring and adult animals. In the study, we demonstrated that multiple virus pathogens circulate among neonatal SACs, and coinfections from other viruses might be common among SAC crias. We also demonstrated, for the first-time anywhere, the circulation of mammalian orthoreovirus in SACs or camelids. Diarrheal infections can potentially impact livestock productivity, which translates into serious economic losses for the Peruvian SAC industry, especially within rural communities, directly impacting their livelihood. Better knowledge of the infections that afflict these animals will enable the implementation of measures for the prevention and control of pathogens, the results of which will ultimately be reflected in improving the quality of life of these communities.
Enteric infections are a major cause of neonatal death in South American camelids (SACs). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens among alpacas and llamas in Canchis, Cuzco, located in the southern Peruvian highland. Fecal samples were obtained from 80 neonatal alpacas and llamas and tested for coronavirus (CoV), mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV), and rotavirus A (RVA) by RT-PCR. Of the 80 fecal samples analyzed, 76 (95%) were positive for at least one of the viruses tested. Overall, the frequencies of positive samples were 94.1% and 100% among alpacas and llamas, respectively. Of the positive samples, 33 (43.4%) were monoinfected, while 43 (56.6%) had coinfections with two (83.7%) or three (16.3%) viruses. CoV was the most commonly detected virus (87.5%) followed by MRV (50%). RVA was detected only in coinfections. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MRV circulation in SACs or camelids anywhere. These data show that multiple viruses circulate widely among young alpaca and llama crias within the studied areas. These infections can potentially reduce livestock productivity, which translates into serious economic losses for rural communities, directly impacting their livelihoods. View Full-Text
Keywords: alpacas; llamas; Peru; rotavirus; coronavirus; mammalian orthoreovirus alpacas; llamas; Peru; rotavirus; coronavirus; mammalian orthoreovirus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Castilla, D.; Escobar, V.; Ynga, S.; Llanco, L.; Manchego, A.; Lázaro, C.; Navarro, D.; Santos, N.; Rojas, M. Enteric Viral Infections among Domesticated South American Camelids: First Detection of Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Camelids. Animals 2021, 11, 1455. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051455

AMA Style

Castilla D, Escobar V, Ynga S, Llanco L, Manchego A, Lázaro C, Navarro D, Santos N, Rojas M. Enteric Viral Infections among Domesticated South American Camelids: First Detection of Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Camelids. Animals. 2021; 11(5):1455. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051455

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castilla, Dayana, Victor Escobar, Sergio Ynga, Luis Llanco, Alberto Manchego, César Lázaro, Dennis Navarro, Norma Santos, and Miguel Rojas. 2021. "Enteric Viral Infections among Domesticated South American Camelids: First Detection of Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Camelids" Animals 11, no. 5: 1455. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051455

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