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Article

Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNAs in the Saffron Finch, Sicalis flaveola (Passeriformes, Aves)

1
School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ, UK
2
Instituto Federal do Pará, Abaetetuba 8440-000, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Diversidade Genética Animal, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel 97300-162, Brazil
4
Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Laboratório de Citogenética de Peixes, Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos 13565-905, Brazil
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Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, Brazil
6
Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos e Citogenética, SAMAM, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Ananindeua 67030-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Leopoldo Iannuzzi and Pietro Parma
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051456
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
Detailed chromosome studies of birds, addressing both macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, have been reported only for few species. Hence, in this study, we performed investigations of chromosome evolution in the Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), a semi-domestic species, tolerant of human proximity and nesting in roof spaces. We also explored the organization of simple short repeats (SSR) in the genome of this species. Our results revealed that most of the Saffron finch chromosomes remained highly conserved when compared to the avian ancestral karyotype and that the SSR accumulated mainly in the microchromosomes and the short arms of Z (sex) chromosome. Finally, we compared our results with other avian species, contributing to a better understanding of the chromosome organization and evolution of the Saffron finch genome.
The Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), a semi-domestic species, is tolerant of human proximity and nesting in roof spaces. Considering the importance of cytogenomic approaches in revealing different aspects of genomic organization and evolution, we provide detailed cytogenetic data for S. flaveola, including the standard Giemsa karyotype, C- and G-banding, repetitive DNA mapping, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) FISH. We also compared our results with the sister groups, Passeriformes and Psittaciformes, bringing new insights into the chromosome and genome evolution of birds. The results revealed contrasting rates of intrachromosomal changes, highlighting the role of SSR (simple short repetition probes) accumulation in the karyotype reorganization. The SSRs showed scattered hybridization, but brighter signals were observed in the microchromosomes and the short arms of Z chromosome in S. flaveola. BACs probes showed conservation of ancestral syntenies of macrochromosomes (except GGA1), as well as the tested microchromosomes. The comparison of our results with previous studies indicates that the great biological diversity observed in Passeriformes was not likely accompanied by interchromosomal changes. In addition, although repetitive sequences often act as hotspots of genome rearrangements, Passeriformes species showed a higher number of signals when compared with the sister group Psittaciformes, indicating that these sequences were not involved in the extensive karyotype reorganization seen in the latter. View Full-Text
Keywords: Thraupidae; micro and macrochromosomes; inter and intrachromosomal rearrangements; genetic organization; SSRs Thraupidae; micro and macrochromosomes; inter and intrachromosomal rearrangements; genetic organization; SSRs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kretschmer, R.; Rodrigues, B.S.; Barcellos, S.A.; Costa, A.L.; Cioffi, M.d.B.; Garnero, A.d.V.; Gunski, R.J.; de Oliveira, E.H.C.; Griffin, D.K. Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNAs in the Saffron Finch, Sicalis flaveola (Passeriformes, Aves). Animals 2021, 11, 1456. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051456

AMA Style

Kretschmer R, Rodrigues BS, Barcellos SA, Costa AL, Cioffi MdB, Garnero AdV, Gunski RJ, de Oliveira EHC, Griffin DK. Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNAs in the Saffron Finch, Sicalis flaveola (Passeriformes, Aves). Animals. 2021; 11(5):1456. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051456

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kretschmer, Rafael, Benilson S. Rodrigues, Suziane A. Barcellos, Alice L. Costa, Marcelo d.B. Cioffi, Analía d.V. Garnero, Ricardo J. Gunski, Edivaldo H.C. de Oliveira, and Darren K. Griffin 2021. "Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNAs in the Saffron Finch, Sicalis flaveola (Passeriformes, Aves)" Animals 11, no. 5: 1456. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051456

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