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Article

Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiles in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells under Essential Amino Acid Restriction

1
Research Group Biogénesis, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Antioquia, Medellín 050034, Colombia
2
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Antioquia, Medellín 050034, Colombia
3
Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051334
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 12 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 7 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Cattle)
Cells of the mammary gland obtain their necessary nutrients from the blood to produce milk components, such as casein. To achieve higher productivity, cows are excessively supplemented, thus generating a higher cost of production and affecting the environment. Therefore, this triggers the need for a reduction in the supplementation of essential amino acids without affecting the milk composition. The present in vitro study shows that, through homeostatic and homeorhetic processes, cells have the ability to maintain stable casein levels despite decreasing the percentage of essential amino acids (EAAs) supplied. These findings could contribute to the proposal of more efficient nutritional strategies at lower environmental and economic costs.
Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in culture are a useful model for elucidating mammary gland metabolism and changes that occur under different nutrient disponibility. MECs were exposed to different treatments: 100% EAA for 8 h and 24 h restriction (R); 2% EAA for 8 h and 24 h R; 2% EAA for 8 h and 24 h + 100% EAA for 8 h and 24 h restriction + re-feeding (R + RF). Western blotting and protein quantification was performed. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) software identified the amino acids (AAs) and signaling pathways. The chi-squared test, multiple classification analysis, and analysis of variance were used for the purification and identification of data. Intracellular casein levels were not affected. The KEGG analysis revealed that the important pathways of metabolism of AAs, which were involved in processes related to metabolism and biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan (fumarate, acetyl-CoA, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle), were affected by both R and R + RF treatments, mainly through the glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase-2 enzyme. Additionally, metabolic processes mediated by the mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and asparagine synthase proteins positively regulated the carbohydrate pathway, pyruvate, and TCA cycles, as well as the metabolism of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism (carbohydrate and TCA cycle). We hypothesized that MECs have the capacity to utilize alternative pathways that ensure the availability of substrates for composing milk proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: abductive analysis; ASNS; bovine; casein; EAA restriction; GOT2; mammary epithelial cell; MAT2A; MDH2 abductive analysis; ASNS; bovine; casein; EAA restriction; GOT2; mammary epithelial cell; MAT2A; MDH2
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MDPI and ACS Style

López-Diez, L.; Calle-Velásquez, C.; Hanigan, M.D.; Ruiz-Cortés, Z.T. Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiles in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells under Essential Amino Acid Restriction. Animals 2021, 11, 1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051334

AMA Style

López-Diez L, Calle-Velásquez C, Hanigan MD, Ruiz-Cortés ZT. Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiles in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells under Essential Amino Acid Restriction. Animals. 2021; 11(5):1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051334

Chicago/Turabian Style

López-Diez, Laura, Camilo Calle-Velásquez, Mark D. Hanigan, and Zulma T. Ruiz-Cortés. 2021. "Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiles in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells under Essential Amino Acid Restriction" Animals 11, no. 5: 1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051334

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