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Article

Toll-Like Receptor Expression Profiles in Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Multiple KoRV Subtypes

1
Transboundary Animal Diseases Centre, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology and Public Health, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Barishal 8210, Bangladesh
3
Department of Health, Chattogram City Corporation, Chattogram 4000, Bangladesh
4
Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Natasha Speight
Animals 2021, 11(4), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040983
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Diseases of Koalas)
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a major pathogen of koala. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important innate immune component that are evolutionary conserved and play a crucial role in the early defense against invading pathogens. The expression profile of TLRs in KoRV infection in koalas is not characterized yet. Therefore, in this study, we characterized TLR expression patterns in koalas infected with KoRV-A only vs. KoRV-A with KoRV-B and/or -C. Using qRT-PCR, we measured TLR2–10 and TLR13 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and/or tissues from captive koalas in Japanese zoos. We observed variations in TLR expression in koalas with a range of subtype infection profiles (KoRV-A only vs. KoRV-A with KoRV-B and/or -C). The findings of this study might improve our current understanding of koala’s immune response to KoRV infection.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors, play an important role in innate immunity by recognizing microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Koala retrovirus (KoRV), a major koala pathogen, exists in both endogenous (KoRV-A) and exogenous forms (KoRV-B to J). However, the expression profile of TLRs in koalas infected with KoRV-A and other subtypes is yet to characterize. Here, we investigated TLR expression profiles in koalas with a range of subtype infection profiles (KoRV-A only vs. KoRV-A with KoRV-B and/or -C). To this end, we cloned partial sequences for TLRs (TLR2–10 and TLR13), developed real-time PCR assays, and determined TLRs mRNA expression patterns in koala PBMCs and/or tissues. All the reported TLRs for koala were expressed in PBMCs, and variations in TLR expression were observed in koalas infected with exogenous subtypes (KoRV-B and KoRV-C) compared to the endogenous subtype (KoRV-A) only, which indicates the implications of TLRs in KoRV infection. TLRs were also found to be differentially expressed in koala tissues. This is the first report of TLR expression profiles in koala, which provides insights into koala’s immune response to KoRV infection that could be utilized for the future exploitation of TLR modulators in the maintenance of koala health. View Full-Text
Keywords: koala; toll-like receptors; koala retrovirus; immune response koala; toll-like receptors; koala retrovirus; immune response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kayesh, M.E.H.; Hashem, M.A.; Tsukiyama-Kohara, K. Toll-Like Receptor Expression Profiles in Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Multiple KoRV Subtypes. Animals 2021, 11, 983. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040983

AMA Style

Kayesh MEH, Hashem MA, Tsukiyama-Kohara K. Toll-Like Receptor Expression Profiles in Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Multiple KoRV Subtypes. Animals. 2021; 11(4):983. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040983

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kayesh, Mohammad E.H., Md A. Hashem, and Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara. 2021. "Toll-Like Receptor Expression Profiles in Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Multiple KoRV Subtypes" Animals 11, no. 4: 983. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040983

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