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Article

Comparative Growth and Economic Performances between Indigenous Swamp and Murrah Crossbred Buffaloes in Malaysia

1
Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Laboratory of Sustainable Animal Production and Biodiversity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sandakan 90509, Sabah, Malaysia
4
Department of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María-Luz García, María-José Argente and Maria Caria
Animals 2021, 11(4), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040957
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Body Condition and Productivity, Health and Welfare)
A buffalo breeding farm was selected to study the growth performance of Swamp and Murrah crossbred buffaloes. The farm was practicing extensive grazing system without supplementation since 2010 to 2011. In early 2012, the farm had implemented a new intervention to improve the growth performance via improving the feed and the feeding management. Farm records between 2010 to 2015 were analyzed for growth performance and partial budget analysis. So far, there is no comparative study done between Swamp and Murrah crossbred buffaloes in Malaysia. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to study the differences in the biological and economical performances between Swamp and crossbred buffaloes in Malaysia. With a new intervention, a significant improvement was reported of the number of calves born, average birth weight, and reduced percentage of calf mortality rate, calving interval, and weaning age. Crossbred buffalo showed dominance in biological performance in terms of higher pre- and post-weaning daily weight gain and taking a shorter period to achieve market and breeding weight compared to Swamp buffaloes. Thus, reared Murrah crossbred buffaloes with new intervention management would give a farmer a higher profit return. However, with reared Swamp, the farmer potentially conserves the local indigenous breed of Swamp buffalo.
This study was conducted to compare the growth and economic performances between Swamp and Murrah crossbred buffaloes. The records of 108 Swamp and 276 Murrah crossbred buffaloes born between January 2010 and December 2015 were used in this study. The farm was practicing an extensive grazing system without supplementation from January 2010 to December 2011 (pre-intervention) and a new implementation of supplement in the feeding regime from January 2012 to December 2015 (post-intervention). The birth, weaning, and body weight at three monthly intervals, number of calves born, and mortality rate of calves at different years and during pre- and post-intervention were analyzed using a general linear model procedure. The interventions in 2012 had a positive effect on increasing the number of calves born for both breeds, average birth weight, economic performance, and reduce mortality calf rate. As a result, the birth weight of Murrah crossbred buffaloes was higher (36.63 ± 0.50 kg) than Swamp buffaloes (34.69 ± 0.40 kg) (p < 0.05). The average pre-weaning daily weight gain for Swamp and Murrah crossbred buffaloes was 0.73 and 0.98 kg/day (p < 0.05), while the average post-weaning daily weight gain was 0.39 and 0.44 kg/day, respectively (p < 0.05). The Swamp and Murrah crossbred buffaloes achieved the targeted market weight of 250 kg at 18 and 15 months old, respectively, while the targeted breeding weight of 385 kg was achieved at 30 and 26 months old, respectively. In this farm, on average a total of 64 calves were born yearly, with the ratio number of born calves per number of mated dams recorded higher in Murrah crossbred buffaloes as compared to Swamp buffalo (0.64 vs. 0.37) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the average number of calves born in the post-intervention period (January 2012–December 2015) was significantly higher than in the pre-intervention period (January 2010–December 2011), respectively (Swamp: 23 vs. 8 and Murrah crossbred: 53 vs. 31, respectively) (p < 0.05). Partial budget method was used to estimate the net gain or loss between the two breeds. The average annual revenue was 2304.14 MYR (566.13 USD) for Swamp buffaloes and 4531.50 MYR (1113.39 USD) for Murrah crossbred buffaloes. The average annual cost saving was 340.02 MYR (83.54 USD) for Swamp and 215.75 MYR (53.01 USD) for Murrah crossbred buffaloes. On the other hand, annual added cost was 84.95 MYR (20.87 USD) for Swamp and 96.76 MYR (23.77 USD) for Murrah crossbred buffaloes. Therefore, the annual net benefit was 2559.21 MYR (628.80 USD) for Swamp and 4650.49 MYR (1142.63 USD) for Murrah crossbred buffaloes. As a conclusion, this study had shown that the higher average daily weight gain contributes to better cost savings, as shown by the crossbred buffaloes. View Full-Text
Keywords: buffaloes; economy; growth; Murrah crossbred; Swamp buffaloes; economy; growth; Murrah crossbred; Swamp
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohd Azmi, A.F.; Abu Hassim, H.; Mohd Nor, N.; Ahmad, H.; Meng, G.Y.; Abdullah, P.; Abu Bakar, M.Z.; Vera, J.; Mohd Deli, N.S.; Salleh, A.; Zamri-Saad, M. Comparative Growth and Economic Performances between Indigenous Swamp and Murrah Crossbred Buffaloes in Malaysia. Animals 2021, 11, 957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040957

AMA Style

Mohd Azmi AF, Abu Hassim H, Mohd Nor N, Ahmad H, Meng GY, Abdullah P, Abu Bakar MZ, Vera J, Mohd Deli NS, Salleh A, Zamri-Saad M. Comparative Growth and Economic Performances between Indigenous Swamp and Murrah Crossbred Buffaloes in Malaysia. Animals. 2021; 11(4):957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040957

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohd Azmi, Amirul Faiz, Hasliza Abu Hassim, Norhariani Mohd Nor, Hafandi Ahmad, Goh Yong Meng, Punimin Abdullah, Md Zuki Abu Bakar, Jaizurah Vera, Nurain Syahida Mohd Deli, Annas Salleh, and Mohd Zamri-Saad. 2021. "Comparative Growth and Economic Performances between Indigenous Swamp and Murrah Crossbred Buffaloes in Malaysia" Animals 11, no. 4: 957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040957

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