Next Article in Journal
The Effects of Heat Shock Protein 70 Addition in the Culture Medium on the Development and Quality of In Vitro Produced Heat Shocked Bovine Embryos
Next Article in Special Issue
Impact of Classical Counterconditioning (Quiet Kennel Exercise) on Barking in Kenneled Dogs—A Pilot Study
Previous Article in Journal
Fruit Size and Structure of Zoochorous Trees: Identifying Drivers for the Foraging Preferences of Fruit-Eating Birds in a Mexican Successional Dry Forest
Article

Behavioural and Physiological Correlates of the Canine Frustration Questionnaire

1
The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
2
Animal Behaviour Cognition and Welfare Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
3
Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Björn Forkman
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123346
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 16 November 2021 / Accepted: 18 November 2021 / Published: 23 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Behavioural Medicine)
Frustration is a negative emotional state implicated in a range of canine behaviour problems. The Canine Frustration Questionnaire (CFQ) is an owner questionnaire developed to measure frustration tendencies in dogs. This study looks at behavioural and physiological measures and their relationship with the CFQ. A series of tests were designed to induce frustration in dogs, and these were completed by 44 dogs; each dog owner completed a CFQ. Specific behavioural measures were coded from the test footage, and the relationships with the CFQ scores were assessed. In addition, a saliva sample was collected before and after the test in 39 dogs so that cortisol, a measure of physiological arousal, could be measured. Various behavioural test measures (e.g., vocalising and lunging) were associated with CFQ scores. Cortisol change and cortisol levels after the tests were greater in dogs who were more highly frustrated. These results support the use of owner report through the CFQ to measure frustration tendencies.
Frustration is a negative emotional state implicated in a range of canine behaviour problems. The Canine Frustration Questionnaire (CFQ) is the first psychometric tool developed to assess frustration tendencies in dogs based on owner report. However, to date, no published studies have assessed behavioural and physiological correlates of this trait. A novel behaviour test battery was developed to induce frustration in dogs, mapping onto the CFQ. Forty-four dogs were recruited and filmed whilst undertaking the test battery, and a CFQ was completed by each owner. Targeted behavioural measures were assessed from this footage, based on hypotheses aimed at evaluating convergent and discriminant validity with facets of the CFQ. In addition, a saliva sample was collected pre- and post-testing for 39 dogs, and a cortisol assay performed using ELISA to provide a physiological measure of arousal. A range of predicted behavioural test measures (e.g., vocalising and lunging) positively correlated with CFQ scores. For 22 dogs with pre-test salivary cortisol levels of <4 ng/mL (indicative of normal arousal at baseline), cortisol change and post-test cortisol levels positively correlated with the CFQ PC5 ‘Frustration coping’ score. These results provide further evidence of the validity of frustration tendencies as measured by owner report through the CFQ. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine behaviour; frustration; psychometrics; veterinary behaviour; behavioural assessment canine behaviour; frustration; psychometrics; veterinary behaviour; behavioural assessment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

McPeake, K.J.; Collins, L.M.; Zulch, H.; Mills, D.S. Behavioural and Physiological Correlates of the Canine Frustration Questionnaire. Animals 2021, 11, 3346. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123346

AMA Style

McPeake KJ, Collins LM, Zulch H, Mills DS. Behavioural and Physiological Correlates of the Canine Frustration Questionnaire. Animals. 2021; 11(12):3346. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123346

Chicago/Turabian Style

McPeake, Kevin J., Lisa M. Collins, Helen Zulch, and Daniel S. Mills. 2021. "Behavioural and Physiological Correlates of the Canine Frustration Questionnaire" Animals 11, no. 12: 3346. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123346

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop