Next Article in Journal
A Survey of New South Wales Sheep Producer Practices and Perceptions on Lamb Mortality and Ewe Supplementation
Next Article in Special Issue
Large Animal Models of Heart Failure: Reduced vs. Preserved Ejection Fraction
Previous Article in Journal
From Land to Water: Taking Fish Welfare Seriously
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development and Long-Term Follow-Up of an Experimental Model of Myocardial Infarction in Rabbits
Article

Cardiovascular Performance Measurement in Water Fleas by Utilizing High-Speed Videography and ImageJ Software and Its Application for Pesticide Toxicity Assessment

1
Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
2
Master Program of Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
3
Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, Nekouzskii raion, Yaroslavl oblast 152742, Russia
4
Faculty of Pharmacy, The Graduate School and Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, Manila 1008, Philippines
5
Department of Aquatic Biosciences, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Rd. Chiayi 60004, Taiwan
6
Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
7
Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091587
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 5 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for the Study of Cardiovascular Disease)
With the advantages of easy culture, body transparency, and high sensitivity to chemical pollution, water fleas have been recognized as a good model for ecotoxicity studies. In this paper, we established ImageJ-based methods to measure cardiovascular performance by evaluating the heart rate and blood flow velocity in three water fleas for the first time. Among the three water fleas, Daphnia magna was identified as having the most robust heartbeat and blood flow rate and is therefore suitable for ecotoxicity assessment. Many important parameters like heart rate, blood flow rate, stroke volume, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output heartbeat regularity can be extracted from videotaping and mathematical calculation. In utilizing those physiological parameters, the potential impacts of ambient water temperature and pesticide pollution on water fleas can be precisely measured.
Water fleas are a good model for ecotoxicity studies, and were proposed for this purpose by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, due to their easy culture, body transparency, and high sensitivity to chemical pollution. Cardiovascular function parameters are usually used as an indicator of toxicity evaluation. However, due to the nature of the heart and blood flow, and the speed of the heartbeat, it is difficult to perform precise heartbeat and blood flow measurements with a low level of bias. In addition, the other cardiovascular parameters, including stroke volume, cardiac output, fractional shortening, and ejection fraction, have seldom been carefully addressed in previous studies. In this paper, high-speed videography and ImageJ-based methods were adopted to analyze cardiovascular function in water fleas. The heartbeat and blood flow for three water flea species, Daphnia magna, Daphnia silimis, and Moina sp., were captured by high-speed videography and analyzed using open-source ImageJ software. We found the heartbeat is species-dependent but not size-dependent in water fleas. Among the three water fleas tested, D. magna was identified as having the most robust heartbeat and blood flow rate, and is therefore suitable for the ecotoxicity test. Moreover, by calculating the diameter of the heart, we succeeded in measuring other cardiovascular parameters. D. magna were challenged with temperature changes and a pesticide (imidacloprid) to analyze variations in its cardiovascular function. We found that the heartbeat of D. magna was temperature-dependent, since the heartbeat was increasing with temperature. A similar result was shown in the cardiac output parameter. We also observed that the heartbeat, cardiac output, and heartbeat regularity are significantly reduced when exposed to imidacloprid at a low dose of 1 ppb (parts per billion). The blood flow rate, stroke volume, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening, on the contrary, did not display significant changes. In conclusion, in this study, we report a simple, highly accurate, and cost-effective method to perform physiological and toxicological assessments in water fleas. View Full-Text
Keywords: water flea; Daphnia; cardiovascular performance; ImageJ water flea; Daphnia; cardiovascular performance; ImageJ
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Santoso, F.; Krylov, V.V.; Castillo, A.L.; Saputra, F.; Chen, H.-M.; Lai, H.-T.; Hsiao, C.-D. Cardiovascular Performance Measurement in Water Fleas by Utilizing High-Speed Videography and ImageJ Software and Its Application for Pesticide Toxicity Assessment. Animals 2020, 10, 1587. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091587

AMA Style

Santoso F, Krylov VV, Castillo AL, Saputra F, Chen H-M, Lai H-T, Hsiao C-D. Cardiovascular Performance Measurement in Water Fleas by Utilizing High-Speed Videography and ImageJ Software and Its Application for Pesticide Toxicity Assessment. Animals. 2020; 10(9):1587. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091587

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santoso, Fiorency, Viacheslav V. Krylov, Agnes L. Castillo, Ferry Saputra, Hong-Ming Chen, Hong-Thih Lai, and Chung-Der Hsiao. 2020. "Cardiovascular Performance Measurement in Water Fleas by Utilizing High-Speed Videography and ImageJ Software and Its Application for Pesticide Toxicity Assessment" Animals 10, no. 9: 1587. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091587

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop