From Land to Water: Taking Fish Welfare Seriously
Department of Research, Mercy for Animals, Los Angeles, CA 90046, USA
Department of Environmental Studies, New York University, New York City, NY 10003, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 30 August 2020 / Published: 5 September 2020
Our knowledge of fish welfare is still scant relative to the enormous demands created by aquaculture expansion and focuses primarily on preventing poor health without considering provision of environments conducive to positive experiences. We are far from understanding what individuals of the different species classified under the umbrella term “fish” need to experience good lives. The aquaculture industry has been expanding swiftly, and fishes belonging to hundreds of very different species are now farmed by the billions. Informed by terrestrial animal welfare science, this article aims to set a framework for making progress in investigating how to provide farmed fish with good welfare.