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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of a Moderate Exercise Program on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism in Dogs

1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia
2
Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia
3
Clinical Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis, Clinical Hospital Centre, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091481
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 17 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 23 August 2020
In this article, we investigate the long-term (four months) effects of a 25 min moderate-intensity treadmill exercise, three times per week, on serum markers of bone metabolism (bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as bone formation markers and C-terminal telopeptide as bone resorption marker) in dogs. Twenty healthy dogs (Labrador and Golden Retrievers), median age 16.2 (11.7–24.4) months underwent the exercise program. Blood samples were collected as a baseline, mid-term (after two months) and at the end of the study. The values of bone formation markers significantly decreased following two months of exercise program; after which, bone alkaline phosphatase increased while osteocalcin concentration continued to decrease towards the end of the study. Bone resorption marker did not significantly change through the exercise duration. In overall, moderate exercise resulted in no change in bone resorption, and a mild bone formation in young developing dogs.
The beneficial effect of physical activity on the musculoskeletal health in dogs is well recognized, but the level of intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise is not fully described. Measurement of serum markers of bone metabolism (bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as bone formation markers and C-terminal telopeptide as bone resorption marker) during four months of organized moderate-intensity physical training in Labrador retriever and Golden retriever dogs aged between 11.7–24.4 months, showed variations of bone metabolism. Dogs were included in treadmill running sessions for 25 min, three times per week. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the program (baseline), after two months (mid-term) and at the end of the study after four months. The values of bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly decreased following two months of exercise program. Bone alkaline phosphatase increased by the end of four-month training cycle, but did not reach baseline value. Osteocalcin levels continued to decrease towards the end of the study. C-terminal telopeptide concentrations did not significantly change throughout the study duration. The results of this study show that aerobic exercise of moderate-intensity caused an initial decrease in bone formation followed by an increase of bone alkaline phosphatase and a further decrease of osteocalcin concentration. The response of two formation markers can be explained by the different stage of osteoblast activity that they express. In summary, moderate exercise resulted in no change in bone resorption, and a mild bone formation in young developing dogs. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone remodeling; biomarkers; exercise; dog bone remodeling; biomarkers; exercise; dog
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vrbanac, Z.; Brkljaca Bottegaro, N.; Skrlin, B.; Bojanic, K.; Kusec, V.; Stanin, D.; Belic, M. The Effect of a Moderate Exercise Program on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism in Dogs. Animals 2020, 10, 1481.

AMA Style

Vrbanac Z, Brkljaca Bottegaro N, Skrlin B, Bojanic K, Kusec V, Stanin D, Belic M. The Effect of a Moderate Exercise Program on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism in Dogs. Animals. 2020; 10(9):1481.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vrbanac, Zoran; Brkljaca Bottegaro, Nika; Skrlin, Branimir; Bojanic, Krunoslav; Kusec, Vesna; Stanin, Damir; Belic, Maja. 2020. "The Effect of a Moderate Exercise Program on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism in Dogs" Animals 10, no. 9: 1481.

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