Next Article in Journal
Hepatic Inflammatory Response to Exogenous LPS Challenge is Exacerbated in Broilers with Fatty Liver Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Dietary Supplementation with Compound Probiotics and Berberine Alters Piglet Production Performance and Fecal Microbiota
Open AccessArticle

Determination of Risk Factors Associated with Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Dairy Farms in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand

1
Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
2
Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
3
Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety Centre for Asia Pacific (VPHCAP), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030512
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 11 March 2020 / Accepted: 13 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Physiology)
One hundred and 40 dairy farms that experienced foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks and 307 farms without FMD outbreaks were investigated in this research study. Relevant farm owners were interviewed in order to determine the farm-level risk factors associated with the FMD outbreaks. We established that the risk factors for FMD outbreaks were (1) purchasing a new cow without following quarantine protocol, (2) FMD vaccination administration by non-official livestock personnel, (3) farms located within a 5 km radius of cattle abattoirs, (4) farms located near shared cattle grazing areas in a 10 km radius and (5) no history of FMD outbreaks in the previous year. Most of the risk factors were related to indirect transmissions of FMD and biosecurity practices, thus we have advised dairy farmers to strengthen management practices associated with FMD prevention protocols.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered a highly contagious transboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD has become endemic to northern Thailand over the past decade. In 2016, FMD outbreaks were recorded in three districts in Chiang Mai Province. The objective of this study was to determine the farm-level risk factors associated with FMD outbreaks. This study was conducted via a face-to-face interview questionnaire survey at 140 FMD outbreak farms and 307 control farms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between potential risk factors and FMD outbreaks. The final logistic regression model identified factors associated with FMD outbreaks including the purchasing of a new cow without following quarantine protocol (odds ratio = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.45, 4.05), farms located near shared cattle grazing areas in a 10 km radius (OR = 1.83, 95%CI =1.11, 3.02), FMD vaccination administration by non-official livestock personnel (OR = 2.52, 95%CI = 1.39, 4.58), farms located in a 5 km radius of cattle abattoirs (OR = 1.83, 95%CI = 0.99, 3.40) and no history of FMD outbreaks over the previous 12 months in districts where farms were located (OR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.22, 0.86). The risk factors identified in this study were related to farm biosecurity, FMD vaccination administration and distance from the farms to risk areas. Therefore, it was important to strengthen on-farm biosecurity and to improve farm management practices in order to reduce incidences of FMD at the farm level. Education or training programs for dairy farmers that would enhance knowledge and practices in relation to the assessed topics are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk factors; dairy farm; foot and mouth disease; biosecurity; northern Thailand risk factors; dairy farm; foot and mouth disease; biosecurity; northern Thailand
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sansamur, C.; Arjkumpa, O.; Charoenpanyanet, A.; Punyapornwithaya, V. Determination of Risk Factors Associated with Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Dairy Farms in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand. Animals 2020, 10, 512.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop