Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered a highly contagious transboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD has become endemic to northern Thailand over the past decade. In 2016, FMD outbreaks were recorded in three districts in Chiang Mai Province. The objective of this study was to determine the farm-level risk factors associated with FMD outbreaks. This study was conducted via a face-to-face interview questionnaire survey at 140 FMD outbreak farms and 307 control farms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between potential risk factors and FMD outbreaks. The final logistic regression model identified factors associated with FMD outbreaks including the purchasing of a new cow without following quarantine protocol (odds ratio = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.45, 4.05), farms located near shared cattle grazing areas in a 10 km radius (OR = 1.83, 95%CI =1.11, 3.02), FMD vaccination administration by non-official livestock personnel (OR = 2.52, 95%CI = 1.39, 4.58), farms located in a 5 km radius of cattle abattoirs (OR = 1.83, 95%CI = 0.99, 3.40) and no history of FMD outbreaks over the previous 12 months in districts where farms were located (OR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.22, 0.86). The risk factors identified in this study were related to farm biosecurity, FMD vaccination administration and distance from the farms to risk areas. Therefore, it was important to strengthen on-farm biosecurity and to improve farm management practices in order to reduce incidences of FMD at the farm level. Education or training programs for dairy farmers that would enhance knowledge and practices in relation to the assessed topics are needed.
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