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Review

Seaweed and Seaweed Bioactives for Mitigation of Enteric Methane: Challenges and Opportunities

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Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Avenue South, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada
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Department of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, SINTEF Industry, 7465 Trondheim, Norway
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Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
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Food BioSciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, D15 KN3K Dublin 15, Ireland
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Queens University Belfast (QUB), Belfast, BT7 1NN Co., Antrim, Ireland
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Animal Bioscience Research Centre, Grange, Dunsany, C15 PW93 Co., Meath, Ireland
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Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden
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Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Post Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway
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Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Bundesforschungsinstitut für Tiergesundheit, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122432
Received: 14 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
The need to become more efficient in agriculture and the food industry exists parallel to the challenge of climate change. Meat and dairy production is the target of much scrutiny due to methane (CH4) emissions and global warming. On the other hand, it should be noted that two-thirds of the world’s agricultural land consists of pastures and permanent grasslands and is used for livestock grazing. This land is predominantly unsuitable for arable purposes but facilitates the production of high-quality human-edible protein in the form of ruminant animal-derived meat and milk. This makes a significant contribution to feeding the world’s population. There is a need to reduce CH4 emissions, however, and several approaches are being researched currently. Seaweeds are diverse plants containing bioactives that differ from their terrestrial counterparts and they are increasingly under investigation as a feed supplement for the mitigation of enteric CH4. Seaweeds are rich in bioactives including proteins, carbohydrates and to a lesser extent lipids, saponins, alkaloids and peptides. These bioactives could also play a role as feed ingredients to reduce enteric CH4. This review collates information on seaweeds and seaweed bioactives and their potential to impact on enteric CH4 emissions.
Seaweeds contain a myriad of nutrients and bioactives including proteins, carbohydrates and to a lesser extent lipids as well as small molecules including peptides, saponins, alkaloids and pigments. The bioactive bromoform found in the red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis has been identified as an agent that can reduce enteric CH4 production from livestock significantly. However, sustainable supply of this seaweed is a problem and there are some concerns over its sustainable production and potential negative environmental impacts on the ozone layer and the health impacts of bromoform. This review collates information on seaweeds and seaweed bioactives and the documented impact on CH4 emissions in vitro and in vivo as well as associated environmental, economic and health impacts. View Full-Text
Keywords: methane emissions; rumen; ruminants; seaweeds; bioactive components; bromoform; bacteriocins; peptides; carbohydrates; lipids; saponins; phlorotannins; alkaloids; animal studies; RUSITEC methane emissions; rumen; ruminants; seaweeds; bioactive components; bromoform; bacteriocins; peptides; carbohydrates; lipids; saponins; phlorotannins; alkaloids; animal studies; RUSITEC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abbott, D.W.; Aasen, I.M.; Beauchemin, K.A.; Grondahl, F.; Gruninger, R.; Hayes, M.; Huws, S.; Kenny, D.A.; Krizsan, S.J.; Kirwan, S.F.; Lind, V.; Meyer, U.; Ramin, M.; Theodoridou, K.; von Soosten, D.; Walsh, P.J.; Waters, S.; Xing, X. Seaweed and Seaweed Bioactives for Mitigation of Enteric Methane: Challenges and Opportunities. Animals 2020, 10, 2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122432

AMA Style

Abbott DW, Aasen IM, Beauchemin KA, Grondahl F, Gruninger R, Hayes M, Huws S, Kenny DA, Krizsan SJ, Kirwan SF, Lind V, Meyer U, Ramin M, Theodoridou K, von Soosten D, Walsh PJ, Waters S, Xing X. Seaweed and Seaweed Bioactives for Mitigation of Enteric Methane: Challenges and Opportunities. Animals. 2020; 10(12):2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122432

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abbott, D. W., Inga M. Aasen, Karen A. Beauchemin, Fredrik Grondahl, Robert Gruninger, Maria Hayes, Sharon Huws, David A. Kenny, Sophie J. Krizsan, Stuart F. Kirwan, Vibeke Lind, Ulrich Meyer, Mohammad Ramin, Katerina Theodoridou, Dirk von Soosten, Pamela J. Walsh, Sinéad Waters, and Xiaohui Xing. 2020. "Seaweed and Seaweed Bioactives for Mitigation of Enteric Methane: Challenges and Opportunities" Animals 10, no. 12: 2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122432

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