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Article

Development and Field Validation of Lidocaine-Loaded Castration Bands for Bovine Pain Mitigation

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3V6, Canada
2
Chinook Contract Research Inc., Airdrie, AB T4A 0C3, Canada
3
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, Airdrie, AB T4A 0C3, Canada
4
Alberta Beef Producers, Calgary, AB T2E 7H7, Canada
5
Richard Terry Innovations, LLC, Conyers, GA 30094, USA
6
Alberta Veterinary Laboratories, Calgary, AB T2C 5N6, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122363
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain management in livestock species)
Castration is among the most common management procedures performed in the dairy and beef cattle industries. Despite the widely accepted benefits of castration, all castration methods produce pain and distress. While slower than other approaches, castration by banding is simple, inexpensive, and produces fewer complications. We have therefore focused the present study on developing herd-level pain mitigation during banded castration. Because lidocaine is effective at reducing pain and can be delivered topically, we have formulated lidocaine-loaded castration bands (LLBs) to deliver local pain relief to calves and bulls during banded castration. Laboratory results indicated a rapid release of lidocaine for the first 30 min, followed by a slow release for at least 48 h. Field studies indicated that, for both lidocaine delivery into tissues and pain mitigation, LLBs performed at least as well as standard lidocaine injections in the short term and outperformed lidocaine injections in the long term. LLBs delivered therapeutic quantities of lidocaine into scrotal tissues over a period of at least seven days in cattle. This approach would provide long-term pain mitigation to the animals and, by avoiding surgery or the administration of injections, would also decrease the time and handling costs for the producer.
Castration is among the most common management procedures performed in the dairy and beef cattle industries and is mainly performed by surgery or elastic banding. Despite the various benefits of castration, all methods produce pain and distress. Castration by banding is simple, inexpensive, produces fewer complications, and can be performed in a high-throughput manner. Because lidocaine, a local anesthetic, can be delivered to trauma sites topically, we have formulated lidocaine-loaded castration bands (LLBs) to deliver local pain relief to calves during banded castration. The initial lidocaine content of three band types developed was between 80 and 200 mg per band. The transfer kinetics of lidocaine into tissue was determined in vitro, indicating a rapid release for the first 30 min, followed by a slow release lasting at least 48 h. Furthermore, the lidocaine delivery and pain mitigation effects of these LLBs were compared to standard lidocaine injections in vivo. Field studies indicated that LLBs performed at least as well as lidocaine injections for short-term lidocaine delivery into tissues and pain mitigation. Moreover, LLBs significantly outperformed lidocaine injections for long-term delivery and pain mitigation. The concentrations of lidocaine in the LLB-treated tissue samples were generally in the range of 0.5–3.5 mg of lidocaine per gram of tissue and were overall highest after 6 h. Lidocaine-loaded elastration bands deliver therapeutic quantities of lidocaine into scrotal tissues over a period of at least seven days in cattle. This approach would provide long-term pain mitigation to the animals and, by avoiding surgery or the administration of injections, would also decrease the time and handling costs for the producer. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal welfare; bovine; castration; elastration; lidocaine; pain mitigation animal welfare; bovine; castration; elastration; lidocaine; pain mitigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saville, J.W.; Ross, J.A.; Trefz, T.; Schatz, C.; Matheson-Bird, H.; Ralston, B.; Granot, O.; Schmid, K.; Terry, R.; Allan, N.D.; Wulff, J.E.; Olson, M. Development and Field Validation of Lidocaine-Loaded Castration Bands for Bovine Pain Mitigation. Animals 2020, 10, 2363. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122363

AMA Style

Saville JW, Ross JA, Trefz T, Schatz C, Matheson-Bird H, Ralston B, Granot O, Schmid K, Terry R, Allan ND, Wulff JE, Olson M. Development and Field Validation of Lidocaine-Loaded Castration Bands for Bovine Pain Mitigation. Animals. 2020; 10(12):2363. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122363

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saville, James W., Joseph A. Ross, Tyler Trefz, Crystal Schatz, Heather Matheson-Bird, Brenda Ralston, Ori Granot, Karin Schmid, Richard Terry, Nicholas D. Allan, Jeremy E. Wulff, and Merle Olson. 2020. "Development and Field Validation of Lidocaine-Loaded Castration Bands for Bovine Pain Mitigation" Animals 10, no. 12: 2363. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122363

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