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Review

Improvement of Disease Resistance in Livestock: Application of Immunogenomics and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology

1
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
2
Food and Feed Immunology Group, Graduate School of Agricultural University Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8572, Japan
3
Livestock Immunology Unit, International Research and Education Centre for Food and Agricultural Immunology (CFAI), Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8572, Japan
4
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
5
Department of Livestock Services, Krishi Khamar Sarak, Farmgate, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh
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Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey
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Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
8
Laboratory of Immunobiotechnology, Reference Centre for Lactobacilli, (CERELA), Tucuman 4000, Argentina
9
School of Veterinary Science, Gatton Campus, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122236
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 18 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Animal Health and Disease in Livestock)
Disease resistance is the ability of animals to inhibit the growth of invading pathogens within the body, which is influenced by the interaction of the host immune system, host genetics, and the pathogens. Resistant animals can be produced by molecular breeding by introducing the genomic marker responsible for disease resistance or immunocompetence. Immunogenomics is an information science that enables the genome-scale investigation of host immune response to pathogenic infection thereby identification of the genomic marker for disease resistance. Once the genomic marker is determined, it could be implemented in producing disease resistance animals by applying the advanced reproductive biotechnology like genome editing. The technical ease and decreasing cost over time might enhance the application of genome editing techniques for producing disease resistance livestock.
Disease occurrence adversely affects livestock production and animal welfare, and have an impact on both human health and public perception of food–animals production. Combined efforts from farmers, animal scientists, and veterinarians have been continuing to explore the effective disease control approaches for the production of safe animal-originated food. Implementing the immunogenomics, along with genome editing technology, has been considering as the key approach for safe food–animal production through the improvement of the host genetic resistance. Next-generation sequencing, as a cutting-edge technique, enables the production of high throughput transcriptomic and genomic profiles resulted from host-pathogen interactions. Immunogenomics combine the transcriptomic and genomic data that links to host resistance to disease, and predict the potential candidate genes and their genomic locations. Genome editing, which involves insertion, deletion, or modification of one or more genes in the DNA sequence, is advancing rapidly and may be poised to become a commercial reality faster than it has thought. The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) [CRISPR/Cas9] system has recently emerged as a powerful tool for genome editing in agricultural food production including livestock disease management. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated insertion of NRAMP1 gene for producing tuberculosis resistant cattle, and deletion of CD163 gene for producing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) resistant pigs are two groundbreaking applications of genome editing in livestock. In this review, we have highlighted the technological advances of livestock immunogenomics and the principles and scopes of application of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted genome editing in animal breeding for disease resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: next generation sequencing; transcriptomics; bioinformatics; genome editing; disease resistance; livestock next generation sequencing; transcriptomics; bioinformatics; genome editing; disease resistance; livestock
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MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.A.; Rony, S.A.; Rahman, M.B.; Cinar, M.U.; Villena, J.; Uddin, M.J.; Kitazawa, H. Improvement of Disease Resistance in Livestock: Application of Immunogenomics and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology. Animals 2020, 10, 2236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122236

AMA Style

Islam MA, Rony SA, Rahman MB, Cinar MU, Villena J, Uddin MJ, Kitazawa H. Improvement of Disease Resistance in Livestock: Application of Immunogenomics and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology. Animals. 2020; 10(12):2236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122236

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Md. A., Sharmin A. Rony, Mohammad B. Rahman, Mehmet U. Cinar, Julio Villena, Muhammad J. Uddin, and Haruki Kitazawa. 2020. "Improvement of Disease Resistance in Livestock: Application of Immunogenomics and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology" Animals 10, no. 12: 2236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122236

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