2. Part 1: The Unique Character of Animal-Assisted Therapy within the Spectrum of Animal-Assisted Interventions
2.1. Animal-Assisted Interventions
2.2. Differences between AAA and AAT
2.3. Differences between the Assistance Dog Model and AAT
3. Part 2: Professional Responsibility Concerning the Inclusion of Animals in Therapy
3.1. The Moral Imperative
3.2. A Framework for Including a Dog in a Professional AAT Team
3.2.1. Handler Profile
3.2.2. Job Characteristics
- Breed restrictions
- Specific client population demographics (physical and cognitive implications as well as client suitability)
- Client population treatment categories (physical disabilities and potential for unnatural human postures and specialized equipment; cognitive status to comprehend appropriate interaction with the dog)
- Psychiatric related issues that require medications that may alter a human’s state (humans becoming volatile in emotional transactions)
- Environmental setting (small clinic, large hospital, indoors/outdoors, individual room/large open space, etc.)
- Sensory sensitivities or distractions to which the dog may be exposed (visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, etc.)
- How the dog is to be part of the environment and sessions (on/off leash, physically sedentary or active, more engaging or more responsive, natural versus trained behaviors, able to remove itself or communicate when it is not interested in working, etc.)
- Identification of work frequency and duration, number of handlers and clients in a typical day
3.2.3. Animal Profile
3.2.4. Team Preparation and Training
3.2.5. Evaluation and Re-Evaluation
Conflicts of Interest
- Serpell, J.A. Animal-assisted interventions in historical perspective. In Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy. Theoretical Foundations and Guidelines for Practice, 5th ed.; Fine, A.H., Ed.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Ernst, L. Animal-Assisted Therapy: An Exploration of Its History, Healing Benefits, and How Skilled Nursing Facilities Can Set up Programs. 2014. Available online: https://www.managedhealthcareconnect.com/articles/animal-assisted-therapy-exploration-its-history-healing-benefits-and-how-skilled-nursing (accessed on 26 September 2020).
- Pellegrini, A. The Dogs of War and the Dogs at Home: Thresholds of Loss. Am. Imago 2009, 66, 231–251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hooker, S.D.; Freeman, L.H.; Stewart, P. Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holist. Nurs. Pract. 2002, 17, 17–23. [Google Scholar]
- Levinson, B.M. Pet Psychotherapy: Use of Household Pets in the Treatment of Behavior Disorder in Childhood. Psychol. Rep. 1965, 17, 695–698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hines, L.M. Historical Perspectives on the Human-Animal Bond. Am. Behav. Sci. 2003, 47, 7–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moody, W.J.; King, R.; O’Rourke, S. Attitudes of paediatric medical ward staff to a dog visitation programme. J. Clin. Nurs. 2002, 11, 537–544. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Uglow, L.S. The benefits of an animal-assisted intervention service to patients and staff at a children’s hospital. Br. J. Nurs. 2019, 28, 509–515. [Google Scholar]
- Crowley-Robinson, P.; Fenwick, D.C.; Blackshaw, J.K. A long-term study of elderly people in nursing homes with visiting and resident dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 1996, 47, 137–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Foreman, A.M.; Allison, P.; Poland, M.; Meade, B.J.; Wirth, O. Employee Attitudes about the Impact of Visitation Dogs on a College Campus. Anthrozoös 2019, 32, 35–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harper, C.M.; Dong, Y.; Thornhill, T.S.; Wright, J.; Ready, J.; Brick, G.W.; Dyer, G. Can Therapy Dogs Improve Pain and Satisfaction After Total Joint Arthroplasty? A Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2014, 473, 372–379. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Andreasen, G.; Stella, T.; Wilkison, M.; Szczech Moser, C.; Hoelzel, A.; Hendricks, L. Animal-assisted therapy and occupational therapy. J. Occup. Ther. Sch. Early Interv. 2017, 10, 1–17. [Google Scholar]
- Sams, M.J.; Fortney, E.V.; Willenbring, S. Occupational therapy incorporating animals for children with autism: A pilot investigation. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 2006, 60, 268–274. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Velde, B.P.; Cipriani, J.; Fisher, G. Resident and therapist views of animal-assisted therapy: Implications for occupational therapy practice. Aust. Occup. Ther. J. 2005, 52, 43–50. [Google Scholar]
- Lafrance, C.; Garcia, L.J.; LaBreche, J. The effect of a therapy dog on the communication skills of an adult with aphasia. J. Commun. Disord. 2007, 40, 215–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hallyburton, A.; Hinton, J. Canine-Assisted Therapies in Autism: A Systematic Review of Published Studies Relevant to Recreational Therapy. Ther. Recreat. J. 2017, 51, 127–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barba, B.E. The Positive Influence of Animals. Clin. Nurse Spéc. 1995, 9, 199–202. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Johnson, A.; VanFleet, R.; Stewart, L.; Crowley, S.; DePrekel, M.; Eccles, E.; Trevathan-Minnis, M. Summary of Considerations for APA Ethical Standards Competencies in Animal-Assisted Interventions. Available online: https://www.apa-hai.org/human-animal-interaction/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Summary-of-Considerations-for-APA-Ethical-Standards-.pdf (accessed on 30 September 2020).
- Mills, D.S. Welfare and ethics in AAI. In Proceedings of the Joint Assistance Dogs International and Animal Assisted Intervention Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 13–17 May 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Mills, D.S. Animal welfare and well-being. In Proceedings of the Animal Assisted Intervention Conference, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 16–18 August 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Mills, D.S. What should an assessment protocol for dogs for therapeutic work look like? In Proceedings of the ISAZ Conference Proceedings, Virtual Conference, Leipzig, Germany, 16–18 September 2020; Available online: http://www.isaz.net/isaz/conferences/ (accessed on 19 September 2020).
- Winkle, M. Animal assisted interventions: A conceptual framework. In Proceedings of the Natura Animale-Interventi Assistiti con gli Animali Conference, Milan, Italy, 15 May 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Winkle, M.; Magnant, A.; Jackson, L.; Newton, J. The art and science of animal assisted interventions. In Proceedings of the American Occupational Therapy Association, Chicago, IL, USA, 6 April 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Winkle, M.; Ni, K.; Wimer, B. Practical applications of animal assisted therapy. In Proceedings of the American Occupational Therapy Association, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1 April 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Johnson, A.; Stewart, L.; Taylor, C. Using the One Welfare Model in the Promotion of Animal Welfare in Animal Assisted Interventions. In Proceedings of the European Branch of the American Counseling Association. (Virtual), Edinburgh, Scotland, 26 September 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Kogan, L.; Johnson, A.; Miller, C.; Kieson, E.; Wycoff, K.; Holman, E. Animal-Assisted Interventions: Competencies and Ethics. In Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, IL, USA, 8–11 August 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Johnson, A.; Winkle, M. Animal Assisted Therapy Certificate Course. Oakland University. Animal Assisted Therapy. Available online: https://oakland.edu/nursing/continuing-education/animalassistedtherapy/ (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Beck, A.M.; Katcher, A.H. Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research. Am. Behav. Sci. 2003, 47, 79–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parish-Plass, N. Order out of chaos revised: A call for clear and agreed-upon definitions differentiating between animal-assisted interventions. Retrieved April 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Winkle, M.; Johnson, A.; Enders-Slegers, M.; Fowler, J. Unified Terminology for Animal Assisted Interventions. People Anim. Int. J. Res. Pract. (in press).
- Fine, A.H. (Ed.) Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy: Foundations and Guidelines for Animal-Assisted Interventions; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Kerulo, G.; Kargas, N.; Mills, D.S.; Law, G.; VanFleet, R.; Faa-Thompson, T.; Winkle, M.Y. Animal-Assisted Intervention: Relationship Between Standards and Qualifications. People Anim. Int. J. Res. Pract. 2020, (in press). [Google Scholar]
- Wlodarczyk, J. When pigs fly: Emotional support animals, service dogs and the politics of legitimacy across species boundaries. Med. Humanit. 2019, 45, 82–91. [Google Scholar]
- Assistance Dogs International. Looking for an Assistance Dog. Available online: https://assistancedogsinternational.org/main/looking-for-an-assistance-dog/ (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Schoenfeld-Tacher, R.; Hellyer, P.; Cheung, L.; Kogan, L. Public Perceptions of Service Dogs, Emotional Support Dogs, and Therapy Dogs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 642. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chandler, C.; Portrie-Bethke, T.; Minton, C.; Fernando, D.; O’Callaghan, D. Matching Animal-Assisted Therapy Techniques and Intentions with Counseling Guiding Theories. J. Ment. Health Couns. 2010, 32, 354–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fredrickson, M.; Howie, A.R. Methods, standards, guidelines, and considerations in selecting animals for animal-assisted therapy: Part B: Guidelines and standards for animal selection in animal-assisted activity and therapy programs. In Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy; Fine, A.H., Ed.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2006; pp. 99–114. Available online: http://cachescan.bcub.ro/e-book/E2/580656/81-127.pdf (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Howie, A.R. Teaming with Your Therapy Dog; Purdue University Press: West Lafayette, IN, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- VanFleet, R.; Fine, A.H.; O’Callaghan, D.; Mackintosh, T.; Gimeno, J. Application of animal-assisted interventions in professional settings: An overview of alternatives. In Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy; Fine, A.H., Ed.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2015; pp. 157–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Winkle, M.; Ni, K. Animal-assisted occupational therapy: Guidelines for standards, theory, and practice. In Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy; Fine, A.H., Ed.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019; pp. 381–395. [Google Scholar]
- Brady, K.; Cracknell, N.; Zulch, H.; Mills, D. A Systematic Review of the Reliability and Validity of Behavioural Tests Used to Assess Behavioural Characteristics Important in Working Dogs. Front. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lucidi, P.; Bernabò, N.; Panunzi, M.; Villa, P.D.; Mattioli, M. Ethotest: A new model to identify (shelter) dogs’ skills as service animals or adoptable pets. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 2005, 95, 103–122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Serpell, J.; Kruger, K.A.; Freeman, L.M.; Griffin, J.A.; Ng, Z.Y. Current Standards and Practices Within the Therapy Dog Industry: Results of a Representative Survey of United States Therapy Dog Organizations. Front. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alliance of Therapy Dogs. Alliance of Therapy Dogs Rules and Regulations. 2016. Available online: https://www.therapydogs.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/2016-Alliance-of-Therapy-Dogs- (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Pet Partners. Volunteer with Pet Partners. Available online: https://petpartners.org/volunteer/volunteer-with-pet-partners/ (accessed on 29 September 2020).
- Therapy Dogs International. New TDI Test: Therapy Dogs International (TDI) Testing Guidelines. Available online: https://www.tdi-dog.org/HowToJoin.aspx?Page=New+TDI+Test (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Alliance of Therapy Dogs. New Information Packet. 2020. Available online: https://www.therapydogs.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/New-info-packet-August-2020.pdf (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Pet Partners. Pet Partners: Professionalizing Therapy Animal Visitations. Available online: https://petpartners.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/PP-Professionalizing-TA-Visitation.pdf (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Bremhorst, A.; Mills, D.S. Working with companion animals, and especially dogs, in therapeutic and other AAI settings. In The welfare of Animals in Animal Assisted Interventions: Foundations and Best Practice Methods; Peralta, J.M., Fine, A.H., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, unpublished.
- Mongillo, P.; Pitteri, E.; Adamelli, S.; Bonichini, S.; Farina, L.; Marinelli, L. Validation of a selection protocol of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention. J. Vet. Behav. 2015, 10, 103–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stewart, L.A.; Chang, C.Y.; Parker, L.K.; Grubbs, N. Animal-Assisted Therapy in Counseling Competencies. 2016. Available online: https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/competencies/animal-assisted-therapy-competencies-june-2016.pdf?sfvrsn=c469472c_14 (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Hall, S.; Brown, B.J.; Mills, D.S. Developing and Assessing the Validity of a Scale to Assess Pet Dog Quality of Life: Lincoln P-QoL. Front. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Animal Assisted Intervention International. Animal-Assisted Intervention International Recommended Competencies for Animal Assisted Interactions. Available online: https://aai-int.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/AAII-Competencies-AAA-AAT-AAE-Feb-17-2019.pdf (accessed on 17 February 2019).
- Glenk, L.M. Current Perspectives on Therapy Dog Welfare in Animal-Assisted Interventions. Animals 2017, 7, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ng, Z.Y.; Pierce, B.J.; Otto, C.M.; Buechner-Maxwell, V.A.; Siracusa, C.; Werre, S.R. The effect of dog–human interaction on cortisol and behavior in registered animal-assisted activity dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 2014, 159, 69–81. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zamir, T. The moral basis of animal-assisted therapy. Soc. Anim. 2006, 14, 179–199. Available online: https://www.animalsandsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/zamir.pdf (accessed on 2 October 2020).
- Alliance of Therapy Dogs. Join Alliance of Therapy Dogs. Available online: https://www.therapydogs.com/join-therapy-dogs/ (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Therapy Dogs International. Testing Requirements. Available online: https://www.tdi-dog.org/HowToJoin.aspx?Page=Testing+Requirements (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Palestrini, C.; Calcaterra, V.; Cannas, S.; Talamonti, Z.; Papotti, F.; Buttram, D.; Pelizzo, G. Stress level evaluation in a dog during animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery. J. Vet. Behav. 2017, 17, 44–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chandler, C.K. Human-animal Relational Theory: A Guide for Animal-assisted Counseling. J. Creat. Ment. Health 2018, 13, 429–444. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Animal Assisted Intervention International. Animal Assisted Intervention International Standards of Practice. Available online: https://aai-int.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/AAII-Standards-of-Practice.pdf (accessed on 20 February 2019).
- International Association of Assistance Dog Partners. IAADP Minimum Training Standards for Public Access. Available online: https://www.iaadp.org/iaadp-minimum-training-standards-for-public-access.html (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Walther, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Thigpen, A.P.; Garcia, A.; Willits, N.H.; Hart, L.A. Assistance Dogs: Historic Patterns and Roles of Dogs Placed by ADI or IGDF Accredited Facilities and by Non-Accredited U.S. Facilities. Front. Vet. Sci. 2017, 4, 59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Whitworth, J.D.; Scotland-Coogan, D.; Wharton, T. Service dog training programs for veterans with PTSD: Results of a pilot controlled study. Soc. Work. Health Care 2019, 58, 412–430. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bray, E.E.; Levy, K.M.; Kennedy, B.S.; Duffy, D.L.; Serpell, J.A.; MacLean, E.L. Predictive Models of Assistance Dog Training Outcomes Using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire and a Standardized Temperament Evaluation. Front. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Froling, J. Assistance Dog Tasks. Available online: https://www.iaadp.org/tasks.html (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Gravrok, J.; Bendrups, D.; Howell, T.; Bennett, P. The experience of acquiring an assistance dog: Examination of the transition process for first-time handlers. Disabil. Rehabil. 2019, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Beauchamp, T.L.; Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 8th ed.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Baranzke, H. Do animals have a moral right to life? Bioethical challenges to Kant’s indirect duty debate and the question of animal killing. In The end of Animal Life: A Start for Ethical Debate; Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2016; pp. 61–78. [Google Scholar]
- Timmermann, J. When the tail wags the dog: Animal welfare and indirect duty in Kantian ethics. Kantian Rev. 2005, 10, 128–149. [Google Scholar]
- Barker, S.B.; Vokes, R.A.; Barker, R.T. Animal-Assisted Interventions in Health Care Settings: A Best Practices Manual for Establishing New Programs: Volunteer Manual Template. Anim. Assist. Interv. Health Care Settings 2019. Available online: https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/aai/1 (accessed on 22 November 2020).
- Bellows, J.; Colitz, C.M.H.; Daristotle, L.; Ingram, D.K.; Lepine, A.; Marks, S.L.; Sanderson, S.L.; Tomlinson, J.; Zhang, J. Defining healthy aging in older dogs and differentiating healthy aging from disease. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2015, 246, 77–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schoemaker, P.J. Scenario planning: A tool for strategic thinking. MIT Sloan Manag. Rev. 1995, 36, 25–40. Available online: https://sloanreview.mit.edu/wp-content/uploads/1995/01/bb0aeaa3ab.pdf (accessed on 1 October 2020).
- Fadel, F.R.; Driscoll, P.; Pilot, M.; Wright, H.; Zulch, H.; Mills, D. Differences in Trait Impulsivity Indicate Diversification of Dog Breeds into Working and Show Lines. Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 22162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mariti, C.; Ricci, E.; Carlone, B.; Moore, J.L.; Sighieri, C.; Gazzano, A. Dog attachment to man: A comparison between pet and working dogs. J. Vet. Behav. 2013, 8, 135–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bender, A.; Strong, E. Canine Enrichment for the Real World: Making it a Part of Your Dog’s Daily Life; Dogwise Publishing: Wenatchee, WA, USA, 2019; pp. 58–67. [Google Scholar]
- Hsu, Y.; Serpell, J.A. Development and validation of a questionnaire for measuring behavior and temperament traits in pet dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2003, 223, 1293–1300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sheppard, G.; Mills, D.S. The development of a psychometric scale for the evaluation of the emotional predispositions of pet dogs. Int. J. Comp. Psychol. 2002, 15, 201–222. Available online: https://escholarship.org/content/qt0p20v7f0/qt0p20v7f0.pdf?t=njto3c (accessed on 2 October 2020).
- Wright, H.F.; Mills, D.S.; Pollux, P.M. Development and validation of a psychometric tool for assessing impulsivity in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Int. J. Comp. Psychol. 2011, 24. Available online: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7pb1j56q (accessed on 2 October 2020).
- McPeake, K.J.; Collins, L.M.; Zulch, H.; Mills, D.S. The Canine Frustration Questionnaire—Development of a New Psychometric Tool for Measuring Frustration in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris). Front. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mills, D.S. Perspectives on assessing the emotional behavior of animals with behavior problems. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 2017, 16, 66–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).