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Article

A Tentative Study of the Effects of Heat-Inactivation of the Probiotic Strain Shewanella putrefaciens Ppd11 on Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Response

1
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Teatinos s/n, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
2
Spanish Institute of Oceanography, Oceanographic Center of Santander, 39080 Santander, Spain
3
Ecological Area of Water and Environmental Sciences and Technics, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gaspar Pérez-Martínez
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040808
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 9 April 2021 / Published: 12 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dialogue of Probiotics with the Host)
Concerns about safety, applicability and functionality associated with live probiotic cells have led to consideration of the use of non-viable microorganisms, known as paraprobiotics. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary administration of heat-inactivated cells of the probiotic strain Shewanella putrefaciens Ppd11 on the intestinal microbiota and immune gene transcription in Solea senegalensis. Results obtained were evaluated and compared to those described after feeding with viable Pdp11 cells. S. senegalensis specimens were fed with basal (control) diet or supplemented with live or heat inactivated (60 °C, 1 h) probiotics diets for 45 days. Growth improvement was observed in the group receiving live probiotics compared to the control group, but not after feeding with a probiotic heat-inactivated diet. Regarding immune gene transcription, no changes were observed for tnfα, il-6, lys-c1, c7, hsp70, and hsp90aa in the intestinal samples based on the diet. On the contrary, hsp90ab, gp96, cd4, cd8, il-1β, and c3 transcription were modulated after probiotic supplementation, though no differences between viable and heat-inactivated probiotic supplemented diets were observed. Modulation of intestinal microbiota showed remarkable differences based on the viability of the probiotics. Thus, higher diversity in fish fed with live probiotic cells, jointly with increased Mycoplasmataceae and Spirochaetaceae to the detriment of Brevinemataceae, was detected. However, microbiota of fish receiving heat-inactivated probiotic cells showed decreased Mycoplasmataceae and increased Brevinemataceae and Vibrio genus abundance. In short, the results obtained indicate that the viable state of Pdp11 probiotic cells affects growth performance and modulation of S. senegalensis intestinal microbiota. On the contrary, minor changes were detected in the intestinal immune response, being similar for fish receiving both, viable and inactivated probiotic cell supplemented diets, when compared to the control diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: inactivated probiotics; Solea senegalensis; Shewanella putrefaciens Ppd11; immune response; microbiota inactivated probiotics; Solea senegalensis; Shewanella putrefaciens Ppd11; immune response; microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Domínguez-Maqueda, M.; Cerezo, I.M.; Tapia-Paniagua, S.T.; De La Banda, I.G.; Moreno-Ventas, X.; Moriñigo, M.Á.; Balebona, M.C. A Tentative Study of the Effects of Heat-Inactivation of the Probiotic Strain Shewanella putrefaciens Ppd11 on Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Response. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 808. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040808

AMA Style

Domínguez-Maqueda M, Cerezo IM, Tapia-Paniagua ST, De La Banda IG, Moreno-Ventas X, Moriñigo MÁ, Balebona MC. A Tentative Study of the Effects of Heat-Inactivation of the Probiotic Strain Shewanella putrefaciens Ppd11 on Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Response. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(4):808. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040808

Chicago/Turabian Style

Domínguez-Maqueda, Marta, Isabel M. Cerezo, Silvana T. Tapia-Paniagua, Inés G. De La Banda, Xabier Moreno-Ventas, Miguel Á. Moriñigo, and Maria C. Balebona 2021. "A Tentative Study of the Effects of Heat-Inactivation of the Probiotic Strain Shewanella putrefaciens Ppd11 on Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Response" Microorganisms 9, no. 4: 808. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040808

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